The transcripts of the trial of Charles Taylor, former President of Liberia. More…

  • Thank you. Please proceed.

  • Thank you. Good morning, your Honours. Good morning, counsel.

  • Good morning, Mr Witness. Are you hearing me in Liberian English?

  • Mr Witness, I want to ask you some questions about some of the things that you talked about yesterday before we continue.

  • Yesterday you said that the first time you were with the NPFL you took leave and left with permission. Later you said that when you were captured in Sierra Leone and taken back to Liberia you were suspected to have previously absconded. Can you clarify whether you took leave with permission from the NPFL in 1990?

  • Yes. I took leave after we had had the advanced training at Gbarnga and they told us to be on stand by to go to Ganta and from there I decided to visit my grandfather in Bomaru where I stayed and when the fighting started in Sierra Leone and I was captured by the troops that were mopping around Potoru.

  • So yesterday why did you say you were suspected to have previously absconded?

  • Yesterday can you explain why you said you were suspected to have previously absconded?

  • Yes. What I was trying to say was that I had left the NPFL without permission and they never knew that I was living in Sierra Leone at that particular time.

  • So did you not have permission to go live in Sierra Leone?

  • No, at that time.

  • Now yesterday also you talked about when you were captured near Potoru in Sierra Leone. You said others were captured as well near Potoru and other villages. What were the age groups of the people captured from your observation?

  • Some were children and we were all moving alongside one another towards Vahun when we were captured by the troops that were moving around that terrain and after the individual interviews were conducted and because I was the only person being a Liberian that was taken to Vahun and the rest of the citizens remained in Bomaru.

  • And from your observation what was the gender of those captured, gender composition?

  • Well, they were trying to know the reason why we were moving from Sierra Leone towards the borderline at that particular time.

  • Mr Witness, the people that were captured, was it men and women or only men?

  • We were a mixed group that was captured.

  • Mr Santora, when the witness says some were children exactly what does he mean?

  • I will clarify. Thank you, your Honour:

  • You say that some of the people captured were children. Is that correct?

  • Yes. There were children, men and women.

  • When you say children what do you mean?

  • Below the age of 10.

  • Now yesterday you talked about installing a radio station at Koindu in an area called Baidu but I want to clarify the name of that area, is Bardu or Baidu. Can you say the exact area within Koindu where this radio was installed?

  • Yes. The exact name of the place was Baidu, B-A-I-D-U.

  • Now yesterday you made reference to something referred to that was on the record as a greet reference. What do you mean by that?

  • I said grid reference. Grid reference were secret numbers that were given to replace names, times, towns - towns, villages and strategic areas in terms of coding.

  • Perhaps the witness could spell what he means.

  • Can you spell the word?

  • I am talking about G-R-I-D-E R-E-F-E-R-E-N-C-E, grid reference

  • The first word in that is - did you say grid?

  • G-R-I-D-E. Grid reference.

  • The record is as it is, I will move on:

  • Yesterday you said that when you installed the radio station at Pendembu you were assisted by gallant men. What did you mean by that?

  • They assisted me in order to erect the antenna because I couldn't do it alone.

  • What do you mean by the word gallant?

  • Somebody who is strong and physically fit.

  • Now at the point we concluded yesterday you had said that you came to a place known as Kangari Hills. Is that correct?

  • And that was at some point near the beginning of 1994?

  • Now yesterday when you described the location of Kangari Hills you said several villages which were in the vicinity of Kangari Hills. Can you name those villages again?

  • Yes. I said Kangari Hill is located in the north of Sierra Leone between Makeni and Kono. I called villages like Makali, Matotoka, Masingbi, Makong.

  • Your Honours, some of these have been spelled, but just for the record I don't believe Matotoka has been spelled.

  • The last name I don't recall, Makong or something.

  • Can you spell that?

  • Yes, M-A-K-O-N-G.

  • I wanted to pick up now where we left off yesterday when you arrived at Kangari Hills. First of all can you again say who was the commander at Kangari Hills?

  • Yes, the very first commander at Kangari Hill was Mohamed Tarawalli.

  • Can you name some other high level commanders at Kangari Hills at this time?

  • Yes, the overall training commander that was based at Kangari Hills was called John Vincent. The operations commander after Mohamed Tarawalli was called CO George Daniel.

  • Any other commanders you remember present?

  • Who is George Daniel?

  • Your Honours, could the witness repeat that bit of his answer.

  • Can you just again say who was George Daniel?

  • Mr Witness, please pause. The interpreter requires you to repeat the last part of your answer. Maybe repeat the whole lot. For point of clarification, Mr Interpreter, are you asking an answer to the question who is George Daniel?

  • Very well, your Honour.

  • Yes. Please answer again the question who is George Daniel.

  • George Daniel was the head of operations at Kangari Hill.

  • Do you know where he was from?

  • Yes, he was a Liberian.

  • And John Vincent, do you know where he was from?

  • Yes, he was also a Liberian.

  • Now you said that Mohamed Tarawalli was the overall commander at Kangari Hills. Did Mohamed Tarawalli remain at Kangari Hills while you were there the whole time?

  • Yes, he was there since 1994 up to 1997.

  • Did there come a time when Mohamed Tarawalli left Kangari Hills?

  • Yes, Mohamed Tarawalli left Kangari Hill immediately after the operation, the operations in Kabala in 1994 December.

  • Okay, when Mohamed Tarawalli left Kangari Hills in December '94 do you know what happened to him?

  • Yes, he was recalled by Mr Sankoh to report to him at Zogoda. From Zogoda he was sent over to Pujehun in order to mobilise, to move and attack Sierra Rutile.

  • Do you know why Mohamed Tarawalli was called to Zogoda?

  • Yes. Mohamed Tarawalli was recalled from Kangari Hill to Zogoda in order to give duty information with regards the captured civilians, especially the women that were captured in Kabala.

  • Who was he asked to give this duty information to?

  • He was asked by Mr Sankoh and the War Council at Zogoda in order that he will give duty information with regards the civilians or the women that were captured in Kabala.

  • What do you mean by duty information?

  • Information that was sufficient enough in respect of the capture of civilians, especially the women in Kabala.

  • When you say the captured civilians in Kabala what are you referring to?

  • They took them away from Kabala to another destination.

  • Who took them away?

  • Mohamed Tarawalli and the group that entered Kabala at that time.

  • Did you yourself participate in that entry into Kabala?

  • Madam President, I have been hesitant to raise this point with the Court, but I've waited for counsel perhaps to clarify the record. The witness testified that Tarawalli was at Kangari Hills between 1994 through 1997 and subsequently he said Tarawalli did leave Kangari Hills in December 1994. Counsel is entitled to lead his witness as he chooses, but it would facilitate matters if questions like these were clarified at this point.

  • Mr Santora, you have heard counsel for the Defence. My notes show that he left immediately after the operation in Kabala '94. Perhaps it would assist if we could clarify that and seek chronological sequence.

  • Certainly, your Honour:

  • Mr Witness, just to clarify one aspect of what you've said, Mohamed Tarawalli you said left December '94 from Kangari Hills. Is that correct?

  • Yes, I said after the operations in Kabala he was recalled to report at Zogoda.

  • Did he ever come back to Kangari Hills?

  • Yes. He only passed through Kangari Hills whilst he was coming from the Western Jungle and on his way back to Zogoda, but he did not stay at Kangari Hills from the day that he was recalled.

  • And that being December 1994, is that correct?

  • When Mohamed Tarawalli was recalled in December '94 who took command of Kangari Hills?

  • The deputy who was George Daniel remained serving as the commander at Kangari Hills and he was later replaced by Isaac Mongor.

  • And when did Isaac Mongor replace George Daniel, do you remember approximately?

  • Yes, it was in 1995.

  • And did Isaac Mongor remain in command of Kangari Hills until 1997 while you were there, for the duration of your time there?

  • Yes. Isaac remained as the commander at Kangari Hills until the time for the AFRC coup in 1997.

  • And who is Isaac Mongor?

  • Isaac Mongor, according to him he was one of the Vanguards who was also trained at Sokoto and also served as training commandant at Sokoto. He was at one time battle group commander in Pendembu in 1992.

  • And where is Isaac Mongor from originally?

  • Isaac Mongor was in Liberia, but according to him he is a Sierra Leonean.

  • Now you were in the process of describing when Mohamed Tarawalli was recalled to Zogoda. Is that correct?

  • And you said he was recalled to give duty information regarding captured civilians from an operation in Kabala. Is that correct?

  • What was the content of that information, do you know?

  • Yes, I know the details of that information. Whilst he was leaving Kangari Hills for the Kabala operations Mohamed Tarawalli was instructed to capture Kabala and to ensure that he captured the ritual head who was living in Kabala and to ensure that he moved beyond Kabala and he was not to take back any civilian, except the able bodied men that were capable to be trained and at the end of the operation in Kabala Mohamed Tarawalli disobeyed the orders and he took along a huge amount of civilians, especially women.

    Based on that information when the news reached Mr Sankoh over the BBC that civilians were captured in Kabala, especially the women, he decided to conduct an investigation and other security personnel who took part in that mission proved to Mr Sankoh that Mohamed Tarawalli brought with him civilians, especially women. And it was for that reason that Mr Sankoh decided to recall Mohamed Tarawalli to report at Zogoda and further investigations were conducted at Kangari Hill.

  • Okay, Mr Witness, first of all you used the expression that Mohamed Tarawalli was instructed to capture the ritual head. What do you mean by the ritual head of Kabala?

  • In 1994 in Kabala there was a man living in Kabala who used to prepare the fighting men or the armed forces of Sierra Leone, the SLA, and he was called the Tamaboro head. He was the one who used to protect them, according to the information that reached Mr Sankoh, so that was the reason why he sent Mohamed Tarawalli to get rid of that particular person.

  • Tamaboro spelling is - it's a new word to me so I'm going to ask the witness to spell it:

  • Do you know how to spell Tamaboro?

  • This is phonetically, T-A-M-B-A-B-O-R-R-O. That's just a phonetic spelling:

  • Now you said that Sankoh received information about this operation. What did Sankoh do with this information?

  • It was based on this information over the BBC that he decided to recall Mohamed Tarawalli and he sent people to conduct a further investigations at Kangari Hill.

  • What happened to the civilians that were captured?

  • Mr Sankoh requested that the investigation team should take all the women captured amounting to 200 to Zogoda.

  • Now after Mohamed Tarawalli was recalled what happened to him?

  • At the end of the investigations he was sent to Pujehun. His assignment changed from Kangari Hills to Pujehun up to Sierra Rutile.

  • And after the operation at Rutile, after the Rutile event, did anything happen to Mohamed Tarawalli? Do you know what happened to him?

  • Yes, Mohamed Tarawalli was recalled to take over Zogoda when Mr Sankoh was leaving to attend the Abidjan Peace Accord in Ivory Coast.

  • Do you know approximately when that was that Foday Sankoh initially left for the negotiations in the Ivory Coast?

  • Yes, it was in 1996.

  • So when Sankoh left for the peace negotiations in Ivory Coast what happened to the leadership of the RUF?

  • Before the Mr Sankoh departed he recalled Mohamed Tarawalli who was in the far west of Sierra Leone at Rotifunk in order to join him at Zogoda to resume duties as acting leader whilst he will stay out on the peace accord. But because it was a far distance for Mohamed Tarawalli to walk within that time schedule for Mr Sankoh to depart, Mr Sankoh left Zogoda that he left his bodyguards in charge of Mohamed Tarawalli and when Mohamed Tarawalli came to Zogoda he will resume duties as leader, as acting leader. Mohamed Tarawalli travelled from Rotifunk through Kangari Hills and came to Zogoda. Whilst Mr Mohamed Tarawalli was at Zogoda --

  • Mr Witness, I'm going to pause you because I just want to ask you a few small questions. First of all, how do you know that Foday Sankoh was recalling Mohamed Tarawalli to put him in acting leadership? How do you know this?

  • It was communicated. He sent communication and delegates were requested from Kangari Hills to take part in that particular meeting and the information was brought back to the base at Kangari Hills. And during the time Mr Mohamed Tarawalli left Rotifunk he also made it very clear at the formation at Kangari Hills that he was leaving to take over at Zogoda whilst Mr Sankoh will be in Ivory Coast for peace talks.

  • First of all, Mr Witness, there's a place you've mentioned twice called Rotifunk?

  • What is that? Is that a location?

  • Yes, Rotifunk is a name of a town in the west, in the south place.

  • I think it's R-O-T-I-F-U-N-K.

  • So you said that Mohamed Tarawalli was in Rotifunk at the time this message was communicated, is that correct?

  • Yes.

  • When you said he sent communication, it was communicated when I asked you how you knew this, what do you mean it was communicated, by what means?

  • Through the HF transmission.

  • And when this transmission occurred where were you exactly?

  • I was also with Mohamed Tarawalli at Rotifunk.

  • How far is Rotifunk from Kangari Hills?

  • It's very far. Rotifunk is almost close to Freetown and Kangari Hills is in the north.

  • Now when you said you were based at Kangari Hills from early '94 to 1997 what do you mean now that you were at Rotifunk at this time?

  • Kangari Hill was where I had my official assignment, but during the operation in Sierra Leone which was called Operation Stop Elections I was instructed to join Mohamed Tarawalli at Rotifunk.

  • And how long were you at Rotifunk for approximately?

  • I was there for almost a month.

  • Now you then said there was a formation at Kangari Hills and he said he was leaving to take over Zogoda while Mr Sankoh would be in Ivory Coast for peace talks. What formation are you talking about here?

  • A formation is a place where - where the fighting men assemble in order to take further instructions.

  • Okay. This particular formation that occurred, who was present?

  • Present in what sense?

  • I'll ask maybe a clearer question. You said first that Mohamed Tarawalli, there was a communication for him to go from Rotifunk to Zogoda to take over as acting leader while Sankoh was away in Ivory Coast. Is that correct?

  • You then also said there was a formation where it was communicated or understood that Mohamed Tarawalli was going to take over at Zogoda. Is that correct?

  • Yes, I said upon his arrival at Kangari Hills he informed the general populace in a formation that he was going to take over.

  • After that formation did he proceed at that point to go to Zogoda?

  • Yes, he went to Zogoda.

  • And did you accompany him?

  • No. This time around I stopped at Kangari Hills.

  • After Sankoh left for Ivory Coast and Mohamed Tarawalli was appointed as acting leader in Sankoh's absence did anything happen to Mohamed Tarawalli?

  • Madam President, I would object to the form of the question. Perhaps it would be better if the witness were the one to say that Sankoh did in fact leave and I could scroll back the transcript and that came into the record through a question of counsel. There was an assumption that Sankoh did leave after he made this communication through the radio requesting that Tarawalli go over to Zogoda. The witness did not himself say Sankoh left. We are now at a point where the question in my view is a compound question including Sankoh's departure, assuming Tarawalli did indeed take over as commander in his absence and then asking a third question about what occurred thereafter. So I'm objecting to the form of the question.

  • My recollection is that the witness said Foday Sankoh left before Tarawalli arrived, but the other parts - I think you've got a valid comment on the other two sections of that question. Mr Santora, if you would please reword that question to avoid leading the witness on some of these points.

  • I will, your Honour. If I understand it correctly I believe that - because it was my understanding there was foundation that he had he said that he had left, but --

  • I do recall that part, but the next part did Tarawalli actually take over is not definite.

  • I understand. Thank you, your Honour:

  • After Sankoh left for Ivory Coast did Mohamed Tarawalli take over as acting leader?

  • And did anything happen to him after he took over as acting leader?

  • Yes. After Mohamed Tarawalli had taken over as the acting leader at Zogoda and whilst the peace talks were going on in Ivory Coast there were a series of attacks on Kailahun, Kangari Hills, Rotifunk and Zogoda itself. Mohamed Tarawalli used to send reports about the attacks to Mr Sankoh in Ivory Coast. Late September 1996 Zogoda was infiltrated and captured and Mohamed Tarawalli was on his way to Kailahun and suddenly he disappeared without any further information concerning Mohamed Tarawalli. And it was based on that information and others who were successful in surfacing at Kailahun gave information to Sam Bockarie and such information concerned how Mohamed Tarawalli was missing in action and that was reported to Mr Sankoh by Sam Bockarie.

  • Now how was this reported to Mr Sankoh by Sam Bockarie?

  • I said those who moved together with Mohamed Tarawalli in the same convoy, some of them surfaced in Kailahun and they gave their own views with regards how Mohamed Tarawalli got missing in action.

  • When you had said that Foday Sankoh had left for Ivory Coast how was this information regarding Mohamed Tarawalli conveyed to Foday Sankoh?

  • There were frequent communications taking place between Mohamed Tarawalli and Foday Sankoh and Foday Sankoh had with him a communications set in Ivory Coast through which he used to communicate too with the various stations in Sierra Leone, especially with Mohamed Tarawalli.

  • So in this particular instance with regard to the incident involving Mohamed Tarawalli who communicated this information to Sankoh?

  • At that time it was Sam Bockarie from Kailahun.

  • And how do you know that?

  • I knew that because I used to monitor the net and at the same time I was at Kangari Hills and my position was still firm.

  • So just to clarify one thing, after Mohamed Tarawalli left you continued on your duties as radio operator in Kangari Hills?

  • Yes, I was radio operator at Kangari Hills until the time that Mohamed Tarawalli got missing in action in September 1996.

  • Now you said that this was communicated and Foday Sankoh had with him a communication set in Ivory Coast. What do you mean? What exactly did he - I'm sorry, what did he have with him exactly?

  • You mean in Ivory Coast?

  • When Mr Sankoh left for the peace accord he requested that an operator goes so that there will be a flow of communication between Mr Sankoh and his commanders in Sierra Leone.

  • Who did he take with him to Ivory Coast?

  • Mr Sankoh had about three operators with him in Ivory Coast. One was Martin Moinama, Eddie Murphy and another operator who was Dauda Fornie, otherwise called Daff.

  • The spelling of Fornie and F-O-R-N-I-E. Martin Moinama should be M-O-N-E-M-A and the LiveNote did not pick up Murphy, but it's common spelling M-U-R-P-H-Y.

  • So what happened now as a result of this communication from Sam Bockarie to Foday Sankoh in Ivory Coast with regards to Mohamed Tarawalli?

  • After Mohamed Tarawalli got missing in action and over a period of one month Mr Sankoh's position was also under threat in Ivory Coast. So he decided to leave Ivory Coast and whilst he was in transit he was trapped in Nigeria.

  • Before you proceed with that I just want - if you can answer one question. You said that Sam Bockarie communicated this incident with regards to Mohamed Tarawalli to Foday Sankoh. Was there any response from Foday Sankoh after this communication was relayed to him?

  • Yes. Mr Sankoh asked for permission from the committee that was conducting the peace accord in Ivory Coast and he visited Kailahun, Kangari Hills and Rotifunk where Superman was the overall commander and upon his return back to Kailahun he then vested powers into Sam Bockarie to serve as the overall commander and acting leader in Sierra Leone.

  • Okay. How do you know that when he returned back to Kailahun on this trip he vested powers into Sam Bockarie to serve as overall commander and acting leader? How do you know?

  • After the ceremony was conducted they sent communications to the various areas like Rotifunk where Superman was serving as commander, in Kangari Hills where Isaac Mongor was and the information was passed on to the fighting men on the formation ground.

  • How was this information passed on?

  • The information was passed on through the HF radio transmission.

  • Did you yourself hear this transmission?

  • So when Sankoh came back through Kailahun and vested powers in Sam Bockarie were you present in Kailahun when this happened?

  • No, I was at Kangari Hills.

  • And did you hear whether or not - you heard the communications that were passed on to other stations, did you?

  • Yes.

  • Now did anything happen to you as a result of Sam Bockarie taking over as acting leader of the RUF?

  • Yes. When Sam Bockarie resumed, or even before Sam Bockarie started acting as acting leader for the RUF the RUF was somewhat split into two. The Special Forces never had good rapport with the Vanguards and because I was working directly under Mohamed Tarawalli, Sam Bockarie and I were never - never used to understand each other on the line of communication. For the fact that Sam Bockarie always tried to trample on the communications network. He always used to speak Mende, Krio on the communications set. I objected to that twice or three times and Mr Sankoh also tried to put that under control, but it proved difficult.

    And it was based on that misunderstanding between Sam Bockarie and myself with regards the communication and when he was appointed as the acting leader of the RUF he decided to change the entire leadership of the communications sector and it was based on that idea that he took another person who was called Sillay Duwoh who was an operator of the NPFL from Lofa County. He even sent other operators from the RUF to Liberia. He changed the entire communication system and he suspended and even expelled me and that I shouldn't have anything to do with the communications until Mr Sankoh arrived in due course.

    That notwithstanding, I had every access to communication. I used to monitor the operators that I trained before he resumed as leader of RUF and he used to give me information from every angle and wherever communications set was installed. So I had sufficient means of getting information with regards the operation of the RUF, but I was at that time not directly controlling the communications sector since Sam Bockarie resumed the leadership of the RUF up to 2000 when I was arrested.

  • Okay. So I'm going to clarify several areas, your Honours. First let's start with - there was an individual that you mentioned that was appointed in your stead, in your place, by Sam Bockarie named Sillay Duwoh. Is that correct?

  • Sillay Duwoh.

  • Can you spell that for the Court?

  • Yes, S-I-L-L-A-Y D-U-W-O-H.

  • Now you said that when Sam Bockarie took over --

  • Mr Santora, the interpreter kept referring to the word "resumed as leader". I'm not sure if he meant assumed leadership.

  • That's what I want to clarify because there was a he and I'm not clear as to which he he is referring to, the witness, and that's part of the area of clarification so that may cover that as well:

  • You said I used to monitor the operators that I trained before he resumed as leader of RUF and he used to give me information from every angle wherever communications set was installed. When you say before he resumed as leader who are you talking about? Who are you talking about?

  • I meant Sam Bockarie and he had misunderstanding with me before he was appointed as leader or acting leader of the RUF and all the operators that were working with him during his regime, I had access to them in terms of communication and I had communication set myself through which I used to monitor the RUF operations, though I was no longer the head of communications since 1996 up to 2000.

  • And when you said he resumed, you used the word resumed with regards to Sam Bockarie, what do you mean?

  • I meant he took over or he assumed.

  • Assumed. When he assumed leadership, is that what you mean?

  • And was this the first time that Sam Bockarie had assumed leadership of the RUF?

  • Yes, that was the time that he assumed leadership of the RUF as acting leader in the absence of Mr Sankoh.

  • Now you also said that Sam Bockarie had suspended you from operations when he took over as acting leader of the RUF and that also notwithstanding you had every access to communications and continued to monitor. What do you mean by this?

  • What I am trying to say is that the operators still complied with me in terms of communication and they always used to send information to me with regards RUF operation and myself, I had a set that I used to monitor the RUF operations.

  • So when you're referring to this period now - I'm sorry, let me rephrase the question. When you say that you were suspended but continued with access to communications and would receive information with regards to RUF operations what time period are we talking about - are you talking about?

  • From the time he was mandated to serve as acting leader from 1996 when Mohamed Tarawalli got missing in action and up to 2000 when I was arrested.

  • Now during the time you were at Kangari Hills were there any changes in the overall radio procedures?

  • Yes, there were only additions, an additional procedure to monitor communication which was a bit strange to the system that we used to practice in the past. Whilst we were at Kangari Hills we had another radio that we used to monitor either the ECOMOG communication or communications amongst ourselves whenever it was necessary.

  • Now when you say there was an additional procedure to monitor communication which was a bit strange to the system what do you mean exactly?

  • There were separate communications that we used to monitor whether a person was not speaking directly to you, but you would have access to know what was going on through the RUF radio network.

  • Who instituted this new procedure?

  • I was the one who did that, because we had extensive areas to control and we had to capture communications from the enemy positions and that also assisted us to give us the duty information with regards the movement of the helicopters against our positions.

  • Okay. I understand you've said what the monitoring was for in terms of what you were monitoring, my question though is what exactly did you set up in terms of the overall radio system?

    I'm going to ask the witness to not answer that question and I will rephrase the question. Can you explain what you mean when you said there were separate communications to monitor whether a person was not speaking directly to you?

  • Okay. What I'm trying to say is this: In a communication network you have a tendency to listen to everyone that is speaking without interfering with the communication itself, or if you had a frequency whenever two people are communicating you may have access to listen to them without interfering with the communication. When Sam Bockarie deemed it necessary to change the entire set up in the communication that system was introduced in order to monitor systematically the activities of Sam Bockarie as well as the enemy positions.

  • How did you set the system up?

  • There were other communications that were used purposely to monitor and to know exactly what was going on on a daily basis in the RUF and beyond the RUF controlled areas with respect to enemy positions, especially about the Alpha jet movement towards our positions.

  • When you say there were other communications that were used do you mean other communications sets or do you mean communications between people? What do you mean?

  • A communications set that was used apart from the station that was in full control of transmitting and receiving messages.

  • So are you saying that there was a separate set?

  • Yes, a separate set.

  • Now was this a change - was this instituted only at Kangari Hills or was it instituted throughout the network?

  • Yes, at Kangari Hills and Sam Bockarie himself had such a system.

  • And these sets that were used for monitoring, what kind of sets were they?

  • They were the same sets. It could be either Thompson, Kenwood, but their duty was only to listen to every communication that you may have access to at that particular time without transmitting, or responding to anyone during the time that you were monitoring the communication between whosoever - among whosoever was speaking on the net.

  • Now yesterday you testified that you were involved in the training of radio operators in 1992 at Pendembu. Is that correct?

  • Yes.

  • Did you continue to have that duty while you were at Kangari Hills or not?

  • Beg your pardon?

  • Did you continue to engage in the training of radio operators while you were at Kangari Hills?

  • Yes, until 1996 I was still conducting training and after conducting the training I used to transfer the operators to Mr Sankoh at Zogoda. But after Mohamed Tarawalli got missing in action I was no longer in charge of training operators.

  • Mr Witness, just to understand, after Sam Bockarie took over and your assignment was changed, but after that point you still continued to have access to the communications system. Is that correct?

  • Yes, but I was not transmitting.

  • I want to ask you now some questions that relate to your observations as to how radio operations worked during the course of your involvement in the conflict in Sierra Leone generally.

  • First of all you've discussed radio installation. How does that work?

  • The process of installation, you would need to have a communications set, an antenna, your battery that could start the communication and you have what we call the frequency or channel. After connecting the set to the battery you would have to tune, switch your set on and make sure the frequency had five digit numbers that you may have to supply to all other nets or radios that would be in line with the head station. You would have to ensure that you use the antenna line on the radio to receive clear signals. At the end of that you have to test or call other stations that are working on the same frequency with you. All other stations that work on that particular frequency are called radio nets or substations.

  • Now you've talked about an antenna. How do you place the antenna?

  • Based on the range at which you want to communicate you can use a long range antenna or a short range antenna, depending on the range at which you want to communicate.

  • When it came to the radio sets that you were involved with in Sierra Leone what were the range of these sets?

  • Depending on the position where you install your communications set it is possible that you can communicate beyond Sierra Leone or in the subregion of Africa.

  • Were there other factors that affected the range of communication?

  • Yes. Your antenna position can affect your communication. The weather can also affect the communication. Lack of a charged battery can also affect your communication. Your position can also affect your communication.

  • How generally did the batteries remain - how did you keep the batteries charged?

  • You needed to use a solar panel or a generator to charge your battery for effective communication.

  • Now you've mentioned two types of radios thus far in your testimony. You've talked about installing a fixed station but then you've also mentioned at one point when an individual had a mobile set. What's the difference between these?

  • What I am trying to say is that when you want to have a base --

  • Pause, Mr Witness. Yes, Mr Anyah?

  • I recall the witness mentioning three types of radios yesterday. Thompson, CAT and Kenwood.

  • Thompson, CAT and Kenwood and there was a Yaesu, and I think it's nomenclature but perhaps counsel could clarify what he means as in perhaps he means the mobility of these sets.

  • I recall the witness also using the word mobile.

  • I think perhaps to clarify he referred to two positions, one being an installation that was fixed, a fixed radio, and another being a mobile radio. Maybe the word positions --

  • There seems to be two different issues, these brand names and then the mobile and fixed, so we'll deal with them separately.

  • Just in terms of the difference between a fixed and a mobile set can you explain?

  • What I'm trying to say is that a communication that you use or a set that you use at a station can also be used for mobile. When I talk about mobile I am talking about when you move, when you are moving. The Yaesu or CAT system radio can come on to communicate and when you finish you stop it and you continue to move. But base communication, you cannot remove it. It is used to receive transmission from every angle and it is on 24 hours round the clock.

  • Now you've discussed yesterday high frequency. Can a mobile station - first of all, what do you mean by high frequency?

  • High frequency, what I'm trying to say is that the same frequency can be used for mobile, but with the base or headquarters station the communication set is on 24 hours while the mobile set can only come on, give information, switched off and the journey is continued.

  • Can a mobile set by a high frequency set?

  • Yes. Yes, they use the same frequency, but it's a fact that the mobile set cannot be used for 24 hours. It is not permanent. It comes on and off.

  • And is there a difference in range between a high frequency and a low frequency radio?

  • No, there is no difference.

  • So what is the difference between high frequency and low frequency in terms of how they operate?

  • The difference between high frequency and low frequency is the range at which you communicate.

  • Which one has a larger range?

  • The one that is properly erected with a very high level antenna or an advanced level antenna. This can communicate at a higher range, while the shortest antenna or a mobile antenna can only communicate at a short range.

  • I'm going to just ask the question one more time and I'll move on, but between high frequency and low frequency is there a difference in range?

  • There is a difference. The difference is that the antenna position, the kind of antenna that you used, the area where you are can determine the high frequency and that of the low frequency.

  • I want to ask you some questions generally about the RUF radio network and how it operated. Can you describe how the flow of communications would generally work within the RUF?

  • Can you describe generally how the flow of communications would work within the RUF?

  • Yes. For example, in Kailahun there was a particular station that operated alongside other substations and in Kangari Hills there were many substations, but they were operating directly under one head station. Above all, all other stations within the RUF command structure focused on the headquarters station which was in Zogoda at the time Foday Sankoh was in Zogoda and later in Kailahun when Sam Bockarie was in command as the acting leader.

  • So how would the flow of communication work between a substation and a headquarters station?

  • All substations either in the north can communicate directly to the headquarters stations in the north and further information would be passed on from the headquarters station on to the other headquarters station either in Zogoda or in Kailahun District. But one fact is that all other internal communication was restricted to internal purposes and only the station which was with Mr Sankoh or Sam Bockarie that has every access to communicate outside Sierra Leone.

  • So when you say only the head station - I'm sorry, let me repeat the question. When you say only the station which was with Mr Sankoh or Sam Bockarie has every access to communicate outside Sierra Leone what do you mean by that?

  • What I am trying to say is this: Kangari Hills never had the mandate to communicate either with the NPFL or during the time that Mr Sankoh was in Sierra Leone Sam Bockarie never had access to communicate outside RUF communication. But only Mr Sankoh had that mandate to do so. But all other stations within Sierra Leone were subject to a particular station that was within that region.

  • How do you know that only these headquarters stations, whether it was under Sankoh or Bockarie, had this authority to communicate outside of Sierra Leone?

  • That was the system that was in place and I know it because it was put in place and I was part of it from the very beginning, but it was strictly restricted that no other communication in Sierra Leone should be transmitted out of Sierra Leone except through Mr Sankoh.

  • Now I'll come back to that issue. I want to talk to you though a little more about how the radios worked. Have you ever heard of the phrase "net call"?

  • Do you know the word net call, what it means?

  • Okay, yes, I know what net call means. A net call is a call to alert every station to ensure that they are on the net and they are observing or listening to the net or the particular frequency at which every station operates at a particular time.

  • Who would institute a net call?

  • A net call can be instituted by any other station based on the quality of material or information that you want to pass on at a particular time.

  • So you've discussed headquarters stations and substations. Could a substation institute a net call?

  • Yes, depending on the information that you want to pass on to other stations you can institute a net call.

  • What is the phrase "voice procedure" referring to?

  • A voice procedure is an act of communicating using the voice.

  • Typically in the RUF radio network what language was used to communicate over the radio?

  • We used voice procedure.

  • And in what language were the communications in?

  • We used to communicate in English. Later in Krio and typical or the vernacular in Sierra Leone.

  • When did the communications move generally from English toward Krio?

  • When Sam Bockarie assumed leadership in 1996.

  • Now were these communications stored in any fashion?

  • Were records kept of radio communications in the RUF?

  • Please make that very clear.

  • I will rephrase the question. After - well, explain exactly maybe as an example, just explain how a communication would work from one commander to another?

  • Okay, I understand what you're trying to say. Every station had what we called log book and you would make sure that every message that you were transmitting to another station is recorded for further record purposes?

  • Where were these log books kept?

  • Every station had a log book and a general log book used to be with the head station, Mr Sankoh had more record log books. At the end of every month you have to submit your log book for record purposes.

  • So was the recording in the log books occurring at the time the communication took place?

  • Yes, for every communication you were sending out it needed to be recorded in your log book.

  • Now was every communication between commanders recorded?

  • No. Voice procedure - sorry, voice communication or communication that is done verbally among commanders can never be recorded into the log book.

  • What do you mean by that?

  • What I'm trying to say is this: For example, when Sam Bockarie wanted to talk to Issa Sesay you would only make prearrangements at the time and change from the national frequency to another frequency that would be suitable for the two stations to communication and that communication can never be recorded into the log book. The log book was mainly for transmission of messages that you are transmitting to another station that may have implications on you as an operator.

  • So just to understand the difference, the communications recorded in log books, who was actually transmitting these communications over the radio set? Who was physically transmitting them?

  • All operators were trained and that was their duty, to transmit information from every commander to another person that the message is meant for.

  • And the other type of communication was when commanders would have communications directly over the set. Is that correct?

  • Okay, we used to have what we called prearrangement, like what I have just discussed with you in the past. Whenever Mr Sankoh wanted to communicate to Mr Charles Taylor you have to make the prearrangements and such communication can never be encoded. They will speak to each other and make sure that the frequency on which they were communicating was free from all other stations except the two.

  • I want to talk to you about frequencies. You've talked about something called the national frequency. What is the national frequency?

  • The national frequency, like I said in the past, frequency is a five digit number that every station is bound to monitor or listen to, then when you listen to another station where everyone focuses on communication or to receive transmission, but there are other frequencies that are private or that are restricted to authorities. For example, if you have a list of frequencies there are restricted frequencies that no other station can communicate on except the authorities.

  • Well, I still don't know what the national frequency is.

  • Let's start just with the national frequency. When you say national frequency what do you mean?

  • It is a frequency that every net or radio communication within that net are bound to listen to or it is a frequency that all other stations are given in order to communicate or to do net calls at the time of transmission.

  • During your time in terms of the RUF radio network do you remember the national frequency number?

  • Yes.

  • The national frequency for the RUFSL from the beginning to the end was 70110.

  • So when you say it is a frequency that every net or radio communication within that net are bound to listen to, what do you mean?

  • Okay, for example, the 70110 was a national frequency. All other stations that want to communicate with the RUF, whether internally or externally have to come to that frequency in order to connect with the particular station that that station wants to communicate with. So that is the only frequency that you can use to connect with another station within the RUF operation system.

  • So you're saying all other stations that wanted to communicate with the RUF came to the national frequency first. Is that correct?

  • Yes, that is the only way you can get that particular station.

  • Now you've also talked about other frequencies. Let's just take - actually, I'm sorry. Let me withdraw that and I ask you this: Upon arriving to the national frequency typically what would happen then if somebody wanted to communicate to someone in the RUF?

  • Be it the RUF or not, as long as you arrive at the national frequency you can call the particular station that you want to call and switch from that particular frequency to another frequency that you wish to communicate with at the time in order to allow the national frequency to be monitored by other stations.

  • So if conversation was occurring on the national frequency was it widely available?

  • That will cut off access and everyone would listen to that communication and that was strictly restricted. You can only come to the national frequency to get access to the situation that you want and go to the other frequency for communication. Only a net call can permit you to talk on the national frequency for few minutes.

  • Now you said commanders including, you said, when Foday Sankoh wanted to communicate with Charles Taylor there would be a prearranged frequency. What do you mean by this?

  • Okay, for example, as I just said, the national frequency, in case you wanted to communicate to Mr Sankoh you first come to the national frequency and make a net call or call the code name of Mr Sankoh's radio station, the operator would answer and you would tell the operator to switch to so and so frequency for arrangement and you people will have to go there and make the arrangements for another frequency that would be appropriate for that particular communication.

  • If you were on the national frequency - I'm sorry, if a commander was calling to the national frequency and told to go to another frequency how would this occur? Would he be given a number?

  • The commander cannot come. That is why every commander who had access to a communication set had an operator. They were the only people who knew how to carry out the functions of the communications system. It's only when you're a trained operator that you can carry out that particular duty.

  • Now you've talked about codes. What would codes apply to within the radio systems?

  • A code is applied in order to secure or make the information secret. For example, if you wanted to talk about Freetown instead of calling out the name of Freetown you will use Foxtrot Tango or FT which is the initial. Instead of using the initial of Freetown you will use Tango 1 which every operator knew that Tango 1 is the name of Freetown.

  • Did frequencies have codes?

  • Explain what you mean by that?

  • For example, if station 1 wanted to contact station 20 station 1 would come to on the net and say, "Station 1 for station 20, take me to Bravo 1". That means Bravo 1 is a frequency which you know. No other person listening at that time would know except if the code determines what Bravo 1 is. If Bravo 1 has a specific frequency, perhaps it may be 285, you would immediately have to go to that frequency and catch up with the station that you wanted to communicate with.

  • So in the example you just gave where station 20 would come to the net for station 1 would that initial contact occur over the national frequency?

  • Yes, you have to come to the national frequency before getting to the frequency that you deem necessary.

  • And then in this example station 1 would call out the name of a code which would refer to a frequency?

  • Yes, as I have just told you, you may have 20 frequencies at the time in your code book and you want to communicate with station 1 - station 20 may want to communicate with station 1 at 68285 and if 68285 is on B1 you will just say, "Station 1 for station 20, take me to B1".

  • In this example B1 being the code for --

  • It is a code for the frequency that you want to refer to.

  • Now who designed these codes?

  • The codes originally were from the NPFL and as time went on we used our own ideas to manipulate the codes as we got to understand how to apply those codes in times of operation.

  • Now aside from coding for frequencies which you've just discussed you've also talked about something called grid references. Can you explain what a grid reference is?

  • Yes, I said that grid references are specifically used for strategic locations, towns and, if possible, for instruments, for equipment like weapons or places.

  • You said there were codes for things like equipment, like weapons?

  • Yes.

  • How would this work?

  • Okay. In a military operation they have various weapon names. We have AK, G3, grenade launcher, anti-tank, et cetera, et cetera. You will ensure that you sought out every weapon that you know is available for that particular operation and we used codes to match each name - each weapon to a name. So in times of operation if you needed any of those material or to be supplied with arms and ammunition, instead of speaking on the net saying, "I need a resupply" or, "I'm short of AK ammo" you would just use that particular code. Sometimes you will say 22, tango 22 or Bravo 22 or 221. That would suit your convenience and the person who was monitoring the net will know that you are communicating and that you are using strange words and he will not have full knowledge of your communication at the time.

  • Now thus far you've talked about codes for frequencies, for locations and for content and weapons. Can you describe in terms of the coding system for content of communications what kind of coding system were you using?

  • Yes. A coding system in terms of content is that if you are sending message for example for Mr Sankoh - from Mr Sankoh to Sam Bockarie, Mr Sankoh's code name is Smile and to Sam Bockarie is Log. The subject could be content --

  • Your Honours, could the witness kindly take this area slowly.

  • I just wonder maybe where to pick up.

  • Mr Witness, you're speaking too fast for the interpreters. Can you go more slowly and maybe repeat the last part of your answer.

  • Thank you.

  • Mr Witness, you were just describing the coding system and how a message would be sent under code. What kind of coding system are you referring to?

  • I said in terms of content or contents, for example when you were sending a message from the leader of the RUF the code name of the leader of the RUF may be Smile, so you say from Smile to - if it was Sam Bockarie his code name is Log.

  • Your Honour, the word is Log.

  • As in the lump of wood.

  • Continue, Mr Witness.

  • And the content will be what the message is all about. It could be a directive, an advice or an information. Then you will have the date. Before you receive or start to receive the message you already knew the weight of the message. The weight of the message will come from the content. If it is a directive you will know before you start taking down the message.

  • Was the content itself coded?

  • In terms of that coding what kind of coding was being used for the content?

  • It depends on the code that you are using at that particular time, because the code used to change depending on the situation or the area of operation. Your code book will determine the kind of code that you want to use for a specific word that you intend to use at the time.

  • Mr Santora, I'm just growing curious here. Is this going to relate to any specific evidence or is it just a general guide for radio operators?

  • Your Honour, it's relevant to this witness's specific testimony later on and it's our submission as well that it's very, very relevant as well for additional evidence that the Prosecution will present during the course of the Prosecution's case.

  • Before we move on, Mr Santora, two code names were given. It is unclear to me whether they are hypothetical examples or the actual codes for the persons named.

  • I will clarify that, your Honour:

  • Mr Witness, you said that there was the code name Smile. Was this somebody's real code name?

  • Yes, Smile was allocated to Mr Sankoh.

  • And the code name Log?

  • It was also allocated to Sam Bockarie at a particular time.

  • Did these names change at any time?

  • Yes.

  • How frequently would the names change?

  • It depends on the security situation of the person, because for example Sam Bockarie during the time that he was in a top position, he used to talk over the air too much so what he needed to do was to change his code name and people used to do it depending on the security network or what is determined at the time. It can stay for some time, maybe two to three months, and it can change.

  • I ask now that the witness be referred to what is marked now in tab 23, a document in tab 23 and in particular the second page of that document I would ask the witness's attention be drawn to.

  • Second page.

  • For the record too the ERN number for the page I'm referring the witness to is 00025639. Can we check that that corresponds?

  • Mr Witness, do you recognise what's on this document?

  • Can you describe for the Court what's on it?

  • Yes. I can see "BFC - Sky". BFC is the abbreviation for battlefield commander and Sky is the code word for battlefield commander.

  • I want you to look down the document - I'm sorry, I want you to first look across and you see that there's the numbers listed 1 through 9 and corresponding --

  • Madam President, I'm sorry to interrupt, I don't know if the document has been identified.

  • No, it has not.

  • Do you recognise what this document is?

  • It's a document that belonged to the signal operation.

  • Mr Santora, are you referring the page or the document that begins with something else other than what's on the --

  • Your Honours, with this particular witness I was just drawing his attention to a page within a larger document and seeking his --

  • I understand that, but what are you referring to now when you asked him does he know the document?

  • The page. I should say the page. I'm sorry about that.

  • I thought the objection was does this witness recognise this entire document.

  • Madam President, we have before the witness a handwritten document. We don't know who authored it. We don't know from where it came. We don't know if he's seen it before. I'm asking for some foundation, that's all.

  • I will ask that the witness have a few minutes to look at the entire document first.

  • No, he has to do that first.

  • That's what I'm asking. I ask permission that he look at the document:

  • Can you look at that entire document, Mr Witness. Just go ahead and look at the document as a whole. Have you looked at this document, Mr Witness?

  • Do you know what it is?

  • Yes. This is a document that belongs to the signal unit about teaching the act of encoding and a process in which you use the code in relation to appointments, code words and duty information about communication in the RUF.

  • Now did you prepare this particular document?

  • This is a note --

  • Your Honours, can the witness repeat his answer. It's not clear whether it's for or from.

  • Mr Witness, the interpreter requires you to repeat your answer. Can you start again from the beginning.

  • I said this is a document that is recognised as a document that was used for the communication of the RUF.

  • Based on your experience as a radio operator is this document typical of the documents that were prepared with regards to radio operations?

  • Yes, this is a classroom document.

  • Now I would ask --

  • Mr Santora, no, you can't. You've asked this witness whether he prepared this document. He hasn't answered that question.

  • Okay. I will clarify that:

  • This particular one, did you yourself prepare this document?

  • I said this is a document, a note, belonging to a student.

  • So you yourself didn't write this document?

  • This particular document is not my handwriting. It's the handwriting of another student, but it's in line with the communication rules and a form of preparing codes.

  • The witness also said this is a document that is recognised as a document that was used for the communication of the RUF. Now was this an RUF document or was this student notes? That needs to be clarified.

  • Just to clarify, Mr Witness, this document, you said it was a student note and you also said it was related to the RUF. Exactly what is this document?

  • Yes, this document, it's a copy of the exact code that we used during the time of the RUF movement.

  • And who prepared this particular - do you know who prepared this document?

  • Yes, this document, from what I am seeing, it is a document of one of the bodyguards of Mr Sankoh.

  • How do you know that?

  • It is written boldly at the back of the paper that it's a Black Guard document and he's an operator.

  • And who is the individual? Do you know who the individual is whose document this actually is?

  • I only saw it as a Black Guard notebook. Perhaps it was used at the station, but I recognise it as exactly what I'm seeing inside - from what I'm seeing inside it's a document that is authentic.

  • Could the witness perhaps point on the overhead to us what he means by what is written boldly at the back of the paper.

  • It is crystal clear from the back of the document that this document is a Black Guard hand note.

  • So, Mr Santora, I take it then that these are not student notes because he has now said that it's a Black Guard document and it's by somebody who is an operator.

  • Your Honour, my understanding is that the two are not mutually exclusive and this is what I'm going to try to clarify. The contents of this document he recognises from his observations and experience involved in radio operations. Now this particular document he refers to as being with regards to a Black Guard operator, he also referred to it as typical of students notes. Now I don't think they're mutually exclusive, but I can clarify that, your Honour.

  • You'll have to clarify it in the next minute as the tape, I suspect, is about to run out. I'm just watching the time, Mr Santora, but let us deal with this.

  • I think that's appropriate, I will just deal with this when we return. I can ask him now?

  • Ask him now, please.

  • Mr Witness, quickly this particular document, you said it was notes of a student but that it was also a Black Guard operator. What do you mean? Which one do you recognise it as?

  • What I'm trying to say is that this document is noted by me as a process or a document which I use to teach a student, but it's also a code that we used, but our code used to be type wherein and this is a copy of a document that we used as a code.

  • I think we will have to adjourn at this point, Mr Santora, as the two hours are up. Mr Witness, we will now take the mid-morning adjournment and we will resume at 12 o'clock.

  • [Break taken at 11.30 a.m.]

  • [Upon resuming at 12.00 p.m.]

  • Mr Santora, please proceed.

  • Thank you, your Honour:

  • I would like you to turn, within the document you have in front of you, to the page with the number 00025639. Do you have that page in front of you?

  • Could you describe what you see on this page?

  • Pause. Mr Anyah, you are on your feet.

  • Yes, Madam President. Before the break I believe we were in the process - or counsel, rather, was in the process of establishing foundation for this document before the witness could comment as to its content. I still interpose a foundational objection in this sense: I have not examined the document up close, but looking at it by virtue of the copies I have and from the distance between me and the witness, it is handwritten and despite the witness's evidence that it is representative, or typical of other documents he has seen, or saw, during the time he spent with the RUF, there is still a temporal question about the document. Many documents are prepared long after the events to which they speak, or purport to speak and there is no foundation as to when this document was prepared. Even if we accept, for the sake of argument, that it was prepared by a former member of the RUF and even if we took it a step further and said it was prepared by an RUF radio communicator, often times people can write down what they remember from memory long after the events and we don't know, we simply do not know when this document was prepared. Even if the witness were to testify as to something in the content of the document that he recalls as being identical to codes or phrases used perhaps ten years hence, it still would not suffice to identify when this document was prepared.

  • Your reply, Mr Santora?

  • Your Honour, the witness has stated that he recognises this as a handwritten copy of the type of documents that he was associated with when he was training radio operators. There is a time connection because he has already, in testimony, talked about the time he was involved in training. He recognises the contents therein and typical, or as - the same type of contents that he was associated with. Your Honour, in most jurisdictions, and including within the international system, when a witness can identify a document as being the type of document that he has been associated with, foundation is laid. I know it is sometimes called something like a business records exception, or a business record, or something, that he is familiar --

  • Your Honour, can learned counsel please speak slower.

  • You have heard the interpreter.

  • I did your Honour. I will slow down. The point being is that --

  • [Microphone not activated]. Mr Interpreter - I am sorry, I didn't press my microphone - there is no need to interpret what counsel is saying to us, but you must record it.

  • I will shorten it to this: This witness has already said he is familiar with this document and the contents therein as being a copy, a written copy, of a typed document that was used in training purposes. He has testified, at several occasions already, at his association with the training of RUF radio operators and he recognises the contents of this particular document as being identical to the contents that he was associated with in his capacity as trainer of the RUF radio operators. I think foundation has clearly been laid at this point.

  • Mr Anyah's objection appears to go to time, whether it is a contemporaneous document or not.

  • Your Honours, in terms of the timing, the witness is on the record at this point in talking about the time he was associated with the training of RUF radio operators. He has discussed it already in terms of his time in Pendembu and then he is also on the record in terms of his additional training that he performed at Kangari Hills.

  • But it is not his training, it is when the document was written.

  • In terms of foundation being laid, the contents - the witness has said this is a copy of a training document that they used. When that actual transcription of writing occurred from this particular operator to this handwritten form, in my submission is not relevant as to whether or not there is foundation for it.

  • We uphold the objection. We consider there has not been adequate foundation laid in relation to this document either as to the time it was made, or its authorship.

  • Mr Witness, do you know who wrote this document?

  • Looking at the document can you tell if - one moment, your Honour. Looking at the cover, can you look at the cover of the document.

  • What do you recognise that to be?

  • I can see something like Black Guards administration.

  • What does that mean?

  • Black Guards were the bodyguards of Mr Sankoh and some of them were operators as well.

  • With regards to some of these that were operators, in the course of your training did you train some of these operators?

  • Yes, I trained some of them, some of the bodyguards as operators.

  • Now, you said that the contents of this document are a copy of another document, a handwritten copy of another document, is that correct?

  • Yes, I said that it is a handwritten copy of a document, all the code procedures that were taught in the classroom whilst I was with them.

  • In terms of the document that this was a copy of, are the contents of that document substantially similar to what you see in this document?

  • Madam President, I would object to the form of the question in several respects: It is leading, it diminishes the threshold for authenticity when counsel uses the words "substantially the same", when previously in submissions he said they were "identical", and regardless of what the witness's response were to be, it would not to any significant degree establish the question of when the document in front of him was made.

  • It is leading, Mr Santora. It cannot be put in that form.

  • Mr Witness, the contents that you see in this document, are they identical to the contents of the document you were using when you were involved in training of radio operators?

  • Madam President --

  • Mr Anyah, it is still leading, yes. Is that --

  • Besides, we have been here and the witness reviewed the document for perhaps five seconds. He has a notebook in front of him. How could he possibly say, under oath, that the contents of these are exactly identical to a document that is not before him, that he may not have seen the original since 10 years ago? How could he possibly say that?

  • He can be asked a question, but the question in the form it was in was leading.

  • Your Honour, in terms of leading, the witness, based on his experience - there is significant foundation laid for this witness's experience in terms of training radio operators. Now, in this particular - it is in testimony at this point yesterday and today, at various points, that he was involved in training the radio operators and the training that was going on, he has testified that they used a particular document in that course of that training. He has also testified that the contents in this document are identical to what was used in that training procedure. If we are talking about foundation, your Honour, I believe that foundation is clearly laid and with regards to the actual time when this particular student, of a group that the witness has already testified he knows and the witness has testified that he trained these particular radio operators, with regard to when exactly this particular operator transcribed the writing to a writing form, in my submission is not relevant to foundation. It is not necessary for foundation.

  • Are you going to reply, Mr Anyah?

  • Only if it pleases the Court.

  • There is no reply to a reply, except if you have some very pertinent legal point.

  • I will take my place.

  • It is the view, unanimous view, that you have not established sufficient foundation and if that cannot be established then you will have to move on in this examination-in-chief, Mr Santora.

  • Your Honour, I am going to ask for a few additional questions to establish foundation.

  • Again, Mr Witness, can you look at the cover of this document? Can your attention be pointed to the cover?

  • You said you know that the Black Guards - you recognised the phrase Black Guards, is that correct?

  • And you yourself trained some of the operators from the Black Guards, is that correct?

  • In terms of the Black Guards, who were they?

  • The Black Guards were the bodyguards to Mr Sankoh.

  • During the course of your training of radio operators, at what point do you remember training Black Guard operators?

  • The Black Guards operators were a part of the students who were given to me for training into the communications system.

  • When did that happen?

  • It happened from the beginning of 1992 when I started giving training in Pendembu and also at Kangari Hills. They were part of the group that was trained at Kangari Hills.

  • Do you recognise this document as being associated with any particular phase of training?

  • I said yes, it was part of the coding system. As I can see it, it is numerical and with appointment titles, involving also with the grid reference.

  • So, your training of Black Guards occurred both in Pendembu in 1992 and later in Kangari Hills, while you were based there from 1994 to 1997?

  • With regards to this document and the cover, "Black Guards", is this document a copy of a document you were using in the training of the Black Guards during those times?

  • Yes.

  • The document you were using for training, can you describe the document you were using for training that this is a copy of?

  • I said that the document I used for training were typed and that this particular document is a hand copy and it is the exact information that was in the typed document.

  • In other words, Mr Santora, these are notes from the training manual?

  • The witness's record is that this is a copy of what they were using.

  • I am asking a question. Are these notes from the training manual that was typed?

  • I apologise, your Honour.

  • Because that is what notes would be, in my understanding.

  • Mr Witness, are these notes of the training manual, or are these an exact copy?

  • What I am saying, this copy was written down exactly from the code book, but this is not the code book that I am seeing at present.

  • Based on your knowledge of the actual manual that was used, do the contents in this document - are they the same as what was in the manual?

  • Yes.

  • The manual you were using, was it the same manual from Pendembu to Kangari Hills?

  • And this is the manual that you used to train radio operators?

  • And also this includes radio operators from the Black Guard?

  • And of which you trained both at Pendembu and Kangari Hills, is that correct?

  • Your Honour, I believe foundation has clearly been laid.

  • Yes, Madam President, I renew my objection. Some things are clear from the exercise we have undertaken: 1, the witness doesn't know who wrote the document, that is clear; 2, he doesn't know when it was written, the document in front of him, that is also clear; 3, we see from the title of the document it says "Black Guards" in plural. It is an administration log book, or purports to be one, written by somebody. Initially the question, or the sequence of questions, suggested that it was written by a particular Black Guard. It is still unclear who the author of the document is.

    Lastly, the witness says it is identical in every respect to what they have termed the "manual" that they used and looking at the copy, or the document he has in front of him, it is obvious pages have been ripped out, I can see it from here, so it obviously would not contain the identical information, assuming, for the sake of argument, that it relates to an original manual that is not before the Court.

    At a minimum, more has to be established than bringing an exercise book of handwritten notes that could have been written down three months ago, three years ago, four years ago, by a school child who runs across some manual in their father's or mother's study and they bring it here and purport to be an RUF manual seeking to introduce it to the Court. I renew my objection.

  • Mr Santora?

  • Your Honour, may I respond? First of all, the witness on the record putting a timeframe to this document and also putting it in terms of his association with the training. This is not something that we are submitting is viewed in a vacuum. The witness has clearly established he was involved in the training of radio operators. It is the contents within this document that the witness is familiar with as being associated with that training. It is my submission, your Honour, that when these particular notes, from content that the witness has already testified he is familiar with, from a manual that the witness has already testified he is familiar with, when these particular notes were transcribed is not necessary for foundation.

    Defence counsel is perfectly entitled to cross-examine on this document and his knowledge of it, but this is a matter for cross-examination, your Honour, at this point it is my submission that we have passed the grounds for foundation. I base that again and I will just sum it up very quickly: Based on, 1, his training, his experience as a trainer; 2, his experience with the manual that was used to train respective radio operators; 3, with the fact that this particular manual is entitled by a group of which this witness did train operators from; and, 4, that he has testified to a specific timeframe and counsel misstates the evidence when he talks about whether or not this can be three months ago from a school child. Your Honour, that is not on the record.

  • We consider that there is enough foundation at this stage and the issues raised by counsel for Defence can be put on cross-examination. Please proceed, Mr Santora.

  • Thank you, Madam President. I ask that the witness can be directed to the page marked ERN 00025639:

  • Mr Witness, do you have that page in front of you?

  • Yes.

  • Can you explain what you see there?

  • At the extreme left there is an abbreviation. I am seeing here "BFC", that means Battle Field Commander, "- SKY", that means, in terms of code, instead of speaking or writing the whole word, one after the other, we use "SKY" to represent Battle Field Commander. The next one is "BDE" which stands for brigade. Then we have "COMMDR" which means Brigade Commander. Instead of using Brigade Commander, in terms of signaling we use "OIL" to represent Brigade Commander.

  • I want to point you to some things on this document now. First of all, thus far you talked about codes for frequencies and codes for content and codes for names. This document, starting from "BFC", what type of coding is this: For content, for frequency, or for names?

  • The first one is an appointment title code.

  • Now, if you would go down to where you see the letters "ATTK" and the corresponding two letters, what is that?

  • It is "AB".

  • Can you describe in a typical communication how this would be used?

  • Yes. The abbreviation for attack is "ATTK" and the code word for attack is "AB".

  • So in a communication how would it be communicated over a radio set?

  • For example, if you had a message that was directed, "You are hereby ordered to attack a specific location", instead of using the word "attack" you would use "AB".

  • Earlier you referred to something called grid references. Do you see any grid references on here?

  • Mr Santora, why don't you let the witness take us through --

  • I am sorry, I thought --

  • -- how this message would actually be translated literally.

  • I apologise, your Honour, I will:

  • Can you continue to describe how this message then would be translated?

  • Yes. If the operator is not much educated, the message will be written by either the secretary to the commander in that particular area and the only duty of the operator is to secure all the important words within the message, such as attack, troops, enemy, or any name within that message that will allow the enemy to take advantage of your communication.

  • Mr Witness, I want you to clarify something: So the transmission that would go over the radio, you said they would use the phrase, for instance, "AB", is that correct?

  • Yes, that is to replace "attack".

  • So when this message would be received on the other end as "AB", what would happen at that point once the message is received in this code?

  • Did the witness say the message would be received as "AB"? He said you replace the word "attack" with "AB". That was why I was asking you to let him finish the full text of the message that had been translated.

  • Go ahead and describe how a message would work from the point of transmission in relation to this.

  • In terms of transmission you will have to ensure, as an operator, that you disguise, or that you put into code, each and every important word within the message. The receiver on the other side will, in turn, decode each and every important code word that is within the message, encode the real words that you see by the left-hand side as you see it on the screen. So, whenever a message is received, for example "AB", that will be decoded for "attack".

  • When the message was received, who would decode it?

  • The operator who received the message on the other side will be the person that will use the words by the extreme left to decode the message, before presenting it to a person who is not trained for this process.

  • Mr Santora, my learned sister had asked that the message - the example given by the witness be put in. Let him complete that example.

  • I apologise, your Honour, I misunderstood you:

  • You were talking about an example of a message. Can you go ahead and complete the example you were talking about?

  • Yes. I said, for example, the message will be written, "You are hereby instructed to attack Bo." As a trained operator, instead of transmitting that message that, "You are hereby instructed to attack Bo", you will have to replace "attack" with the alphabet "AB", so you will transmit that message by saying, "You are hereby instructed to Alpha Bravo", or "AB." Then you use the grid reference for "Bo", which is 413, instead of using "Bo" whilst you were transmitting that message. In return, the receiver, that is the operator, will rephrase them into the words by the left-hand side before it was presented to the person for whom the message was meant.

  • Thank you, Mr Witness. Now, one final point about this document: You see on the right-hand side, bottom right, there is a series of numbers going down the page and then corresponding with the numbers are letters. Do you see that?

  • Can you explain what this is?

  • Yes, in the past I explained about alphabets and numerical. This is the exact demonstration of numerical starting from 0 to 9.

  • As you did earlier, can you give an example of how this would be used?

  • Yes. For example, when you intend to inform somebody about a specific number in terms of frequency, you may want to use something, for example, that happened in the past like 70110. In this manner you would use "L4LHOOH". That means that it is 70110.

  • Could the witness repeat the coded number, please, because I think he made some errors somewhere, or repetitions?

  • Okay, what I am saying here is in order for you to code 70110 you will now call and say "Lima", which is "L"; "0", which represents "H", called Hotel; "1", which represents "O", which is "Oscar"; and another "1", which represents "Oscar" for "1"; and again "0", which represents "Hotel", "H". That will correspond to 70110. That was the numerical code.

  • Your Honour, that is not what I have him as saying previously in the transcript.

  • That is what the evidence is, Mr Anyah. Are you saying he coded it wrong?

  • We have two different codes for the same set of digits, 70110. Initially the response was the code for 70110 was "L" like Lawrie, the number 4, "L" like Lawrie, "H" like Henry, the numbers "00" and "H" like Henry, and now, a few seconds later, for the same set of numbers we are given a different set of codes.

  • I am not sure of the objection. Counsel is welcome to cross-examine him on the coding.

  • That is what the witness has said and if it is incorrect you can pick him up on it, or cross-examine him on it. I noticed the difference myself.

  • Mr Santora, I am just looking at the page in front of us. The numbers appear to start at 1 rather than zero.

  • If you look up to the left immediately - that was my mistake. I think I was misleading in starting him --

  • I am saying the witness said that the numbers begin at zero, but what I see is the numbers begin at 1. There is some other thing at the top above which looks like a zero with a cross in between and I can't work out the dash, whether it is an "H", or a "4". If you can clarify that, please, with the witness.

  • Mr Witness, I want to point you to the document, on a portion of the document. You see the word "SKY" on the document?

  • You see the word "SKY" on the document?

  • If you move across the document from left to right there is a figure there, a dash and then another figure. Do you see what I am referring to?

  • What is "H" corresponding to there?

  • To zero.

  • So in this document the numbering starts at zero?

  • Yes, indeed. It is zero, 1 up to 9.

  • Thank you, your Honour. I ask at this point that this particular page be marked.

  • This is one page out of - when you say marked, I presume marked for identification?

  • This is one page, handwritten, and it is marked for identification - are we back to 16, Madam Court Attendant?

  • That is correct, your Honour.

  • Marked for identification MFI-16.

  • I would now request that the document under tab 19 be shown to the witness:

  • Mr Witness, can you examine that document. Can you take a moment to look through that document.

  • Mr Anyah, I see you rising to your feet. I have not heard a question yet.

  • We are at a slight disadvantage in the sense we were disclosed two pages and the witness is looking at a document with several pages and I am wondering if we are entitled to the additional pages as well.

  • Your Honour, the portion that the Prosecution was seeking for identification is just one particular page of this document.

  • However, the witness is looking at, it would appear - what is the purpose of the witness looking at a bigger document?

  • My initial idea was just to look at this particular page. However, given what happened earlier, with the instruction that he look at the entire document, he has the original and the Prosecution is only seeking admission of one particular page.

  • It would appear from Mr Anyah's submissions that he has only had disclosure of two pages. What was disclosed to the Defence?

  • The document in its entirety at some point was disclosed to the Defence. However, with regards to preparation for this particular witness only these two pages were disclosed and so, as we have and as your Honours have, the Prosecution is only seeking to admit one page here and if it suits your Honours I would just have the witness look at one particular page that we are seeking admission of.

  • I would feel easier in my mind if the Defence saw the entire document before questions are put, now that the witness has seen the entire document.

    Mr Anyah, have you perused it?

  • Yes, Madam President.

  • Let me clear before the document is returned to the witness. Mr Santora is going to put one page only, or two?

  • One page, your Honour.

  • One page only and there is no objection. That page should be opened to the witness, Madam Court Attendant. What is the number of the page, Mr Santora?

  • It is ERN 00010009.

  • Just pause a moment, please, Mr Anyah is on his feet. Don't open it just yet until I deal with that objection. Mr Anyah, you are on your feet.

  • Yes, Madam President, I reviewed the document and on the front of the document, at the cover page, are some entries that explicate the nature of the document, what type of book it is. The witness has already seen this information and that information is not necessarily reflected on any of the other particular pages to which we may be referred, meaning there is a curative problem here if he has gleaned what kind of book it is from the title to which he has been exposed. He may not otherwise have known what is contained in the document.

  • Look, there has not been one question asked yet, so I fail to see how there can be an objection. The matters you brought up, Mr Anyah, are cross-examination material.

  • The reason that we are emphasising every aspect of these documents be properly established has to do with the reference by Mr Santora that they are attempting to use this witness as a vehicle to introduce a category of documents that will relate to the testimony of other witnesses. I am not necessarily interposing an objection at this point. I made the request because we were at a disadvantage and we are given the anticipation that there might be other documents of this nature put to the witness. At the appropriate time I may seek leave of court to voir dire the witness before the documents are put in.

  • If you are not raising an objection now we will proceed on and we will deal with other documents, if any, that are put to the witness at a later point. Please proceed, Mr Santora.

  • Your Honour, just for the record, I want to correct, I do not believe I ever said that it is the intention of the Prosecution to use this witness for a vehicle to put documents through for other witnesses. That is not what I said. I said his evidence as a whole is relevant to - his evidence with regards to certain information about how radios worked is relevant to his entire testimony and future witness testimony.

  • Very well. That is now on record, Mr Santora.

  • I would just seek a clarification, Madam, from the Bench at this point. It was the Prosecution's intention to only put one page and to establish foundation for that page.

  • I have directed Madam Court Attendant to show the witness that one page only. I withheld it pending what would appear to have been an objection. An objection was not formulated against that page. Please show the witness page number ending 0009.

  • Mr Witness, do you see a page in front of you marked with the last three digits being 009 on the top right corner?

  • Yes.

  • What is this? Can you explain what this is? What is this document?

  • This is another code for appointments, or nicknames.

  • During the course of your - both involved in radio operations and training, to you what does this page - can you explain this page based on your experience and observations as a radio - involved in radio operations?

  • Yes. Like I am saying, starting from Colonel Gibril Massaquoi on to Colonel Kailondo, vanguards, looking at the extreme right, whenever a message was given to you having to do with any of the personnel listed from top to the bottom, you have to use a code word at the extreme right to serve as a replacement for the ones at the extreme left.

  • So this document and the contents that are on there --

  • I apologise. During the time you were a radio operator involved in training, is this document similar to types of documents you were familiar with in terms of coding?

  • Yes. I have said it over and again that the documents used to change from one point to the other and at the time that there were no ranks given in the RUF, we used some other means, but at this time that there was now appointments or ranks given to individuals, we used to use these ones that were used as place for the commanders, for instance like brigade commanders, battalion commanders, et cetera, et cetera.

  • How often would these types of codes change?

  • Depending on the changes like I have just said, in the past, since the RUF started, there were no rank systems in the RUF, but at that particular time we used to give titles to individuals according to their positions in the form of brigades, or battalion commanders and when I compare them to this document in front of me these guys are carrying ranks, so this time round you will use another code that will suit the convenience of their ranks and their names in terms of coding, because it will sound premature to go on the net and give information that will cause serious panic to the hearer.

    To make it very clear, at this point in time, for example, like for Brigadier Mike Lamin, as it is written, might have done something wrong and that his security is about to give an intelligence report to Mr Sankoh and Brigadier Mike Lamin's name will be written in the message. It will sound premature, as an operator, to call Brigadier Mike Lamin's name. Instead he will just use "Yankee Romeo Yankee". He might be in the studio with you and he might listen to the message, but he would never understand that the message given concerns him.

  • Mr Witness, first of all you said there was a time when the RUF had no ranks and then there was a change to that where people did have ranks. When was that change, do you remember?

  • Yes. In my prior explanation I did say that from 1991 up to the early part of 1992 the entire operation in Sierra Leone was directed/controlled by the Special Forces. It was only after that period, 1992, that the RUF assumed operations, directed/controlled by Mr Sankoh. During that time the rank system started coming into effect within the RUF.

  • Who would have access to these types of codes that you see before you?

  • Only the operator had the right, at that time, to see such a code that I now see in front of me.

  • Looking down this page, I am going to refer you to one of the individuals listed. You see an individual there named General Ibrahim?

  • Yes, not yet. Yes, yes, General Ibrahim.

  • Do you know who that is?

  • I came to know General Ibrahim as a finance controller of the RUF and a businessman attached to Sam Bockarie, at that time when I visited Monrovia.

  • What do you mean "finance controller"?

  • He was the one who was responsible for finance, to give money to people who needed money at that time, whenever they were in Liberia, under the instruction of Sam Bockarie.

  • Did you ever have the occasion to meet him?

  • Can you explain the circumstances of that?

  • Yes. I met General Ibrahim Bah in Monrovia in December 1999, at a hotel called Hotel Boulevard. He later visited me at the Congo Town guesthouse and he gave me the sum of 500 dollars for shopping. According to him, he was given the instructions to give me this money and Mr Sankoh gave him the instruction.

  • Do you know who General Ibrahim was working with?

  • Yes, General Ibrahim was working directly with Sam Bockarie when Mr Sankoh was in prison in Nigeria and later, after the release of Mr Sankoh, he was given that appointment to control the financial issues of the RUF.

  • In terms of what you said, he was finance controller, do you know where he received money from?

  • Yes. According to what General Ibrahim himself told me at Hotel Boulevard, he was an international businessman who purchases diamonds and gold, Sam Bockarie was his best of friend and he met him in Monrovia and that he had been his friend and as business partners. In the issues dealing with the RUF it was Mr Sankoh who met him and after introduction by Sam Bockarie, in respect of his role as business partner to Sam Bockarie, he was asked to control the financial issues within the RUF when they met in Monrovia.

  • You said you also saw him at Congo Town guesthouse?

  • When I arrived in Monrovia on 22 December I was taken to a house in Congo Town where Rashid Foday, Memenatu Deen and other RUF personnel were based in Monrovia. That was where I met General Ibrahim when he gave me the sum of 500 dollars.

  • Your Honours, the spelling. I am not sure Memenatu Deen has been spelt for the record. It has been, I apologise:

  • The money you were given by General Ibrahim, what was it for?

  • He gave me the money for shopping.

  • I would now ask that the witness - that this document be marked for identification.

  • [Microphone not activated]. I am sorry, I did not have my microphone on. I will repeat that. One page document with handwriting becomes MFI-17.

  • Mr Witness, at this point I want to ask you a few more questions about radio operations before continuing to where we were talking about before.

  • You have discussed coding for frequencies and for content, for names and locations, and you have also talked about national frequency and coded frequencies. In terms of code, who had access to these codes?

  • Only the operators had access to the codes. These were strictly restricted to them.

  • Did anyone outside Sierra Leone have access to the codes?

  • If anybody else outside Sierra Leone had access to the code, he should be an operator.

  • Did this occur?

  • Who else had access to the codes?

  • Like I told you: Osman Tollo, Memenatu Deen, who were at the lodge, or the guesthouse, in Monrovia where all operators and they also had access to these codes.

  • I am not sure whether you have covered this already, Mr Santora, but who actually created the codes?

  • Before I go on with this, Mr Witness, the codes themselves, who was in charge of creating the codes?

  • The code was brought from Liberia and it was a code from the NPFL and we extracted them from the NPFL code system.

  • You mentioned Osman Tollo and Memenatu Deen as having access to the codes, is that correct?

  • How do you know that?

  • Because they were external delegates from the RUF side, based in Monrovia.

  • Why did they have access to the codes, do you know?

  • Yes, because they were operators and they used to communicate with the RUF as external delegates.

  • How do you know that?

  • I knew that as an operator and it was agreed and they sent them for that purpose, and even before they went to Monrovia they were with Mr Sankoh in Ivory Coast, and later, after Mr Sankoh was dislodged, they escaped and entered Monrovia.

  • I want to take you to the time when Sam Bockarie was in charge of the RUF.

  • Yes.

  • When Sam Bockarie was in charge of the RUF, did anyone outside of Sierra Leone have access to the RUF codes?

  • Osman Tollo was an operator who had access to the RUF codes. Another operator by the name of Memenatu Deen also had access to these codes and many others who were assigned with Benjamin Yeaten, otherwise referred to as 50. Some were assigned in Vahun and Foya.

  • Who was Benjamin Yeaten?

  • Benjamin Yeaten was the immediate coordinator, according to how I understood it when I arrived in Monrovia in 1999, 22 December. I was introduced to him by Mr Sankoh and he explained himself to me that he had been the coordinator between Mr Charles Ghankay Taylor and Sam Bockarie.

  • Do you know why operators for Benjamin Yeaten had access to the RUF codes?

  • Yes, that was the only way they could communicate properly.

  • Communicate properly with who, Mr Witness?

  • The station at which they were operating and to the other stations in Sierra Leone because you can never do proper communication, in terms of transmitting, without being in possession of the codes.

  • Mr Santora, if you look at the record the answer is not very clear, "they were operating and to the other stations in Sierra Leone", et cetera, et cetera. The question you asked was, "Communicating with who, Mr Witness?"

  • Maybe my question too was a little abbreviated:

  • Mr Witness, I asked you why the operators for Benjamin Yeaten had access to the RUF codes and you said, "That was the only way they could communicate properly." My question is: Communicate properly with who?

  • Sam Bockarie and Benjamin Yeaten, that Sam Bockarie and Benjamin Yeaten could communicate properly.

  • You talked about monitoring that you established while you were at Kangari Hills, operators designated specifically for monitoring, is that correct?

  • Pardon me?

  • Earlier you were talking about while you were at Kangari Hills you established a system where certain operators would be designated for the purpose of monitoring, is that correct?

  • Yes, but what are you actually trying to tell me? It is not very clear to me what you are talking about, monitoring or communicating? You mean who is an operator, who is a monitor?

  • I apologise, Mr Witness. What I am asking is that I just want to confirm that earlier in your testimony you talked before about operators who were designated only to monitor, is that correct?

  • When you were at Kangari Hills, that you yourself implemented a system where some operators were assigned to monitor.

  • Yes, yes.

  • Would these operators have access to the codes?

  • Now, you also have said that after Sam Bockarie came into the leadership of the RUF, that your assignment changed but you continued to have access to the radio operations through monitoring, is that correct?

  • Yes.

  • So during the time of Sam Bockarie did you continue to have access to the codes?

  • I just want to ask you just one or two more questions with regard to radio operations. I apologise, your Honour.

  • [Microphone not activated].

  • I realised I missed something:

  • Have you ever heard of the phrase "back up codes"?

  • A back up code is a temporary code that are normally used by sub-stations for a short period of time and after that operation that particular code becomes invalid.

  • Why were they necessary?

  • They were necessary in order to know, or to check and balance the security network.

  • How would they check and balance the security network?

  • I said security network. What I am trying to say is this: For example, if you knew that your area of operation, for example Kangari Hills, is under serious threat by the enemies, you could use a back up code for the troops that are moving in the battle and that code will not be accessible to other stations, except your headquarters station at Kangari Hills. So, each and every communication that you would transmit will never reach any other station that will be monitoring you at that particular point in time. On the other hand, a back up code was also used whenever your ground is being captured, when you lose control of your code, so it can also be referred to as a sub-code to replace the original code that you had in possession.

  • Have you ever heard the phrase, or the term "emergency code"? What does that mean? Sorry, that is two questions. Have you ever heard of the phrase "emergency code"?

  • Yes, an emergency code and a back up code are almost the same. They are for a shorter term and for any danger that could come at that time.

  • Now, you have talked about "headquarter station" on several occasions. During the time of Sam Bockarie, when he was in charge of the RUF, where was the headquarter station?

  • The headquarters station for Sam Bockarie's administration was in Buedu.

  • You also said that there were radio operators in Liberia, including --

  • Mr Santora, did the witness say Buedu, or Baidu?

  • I will ask him again. I understood Buedu, but I will ask again:

  • Where was the headquarter station during the time that Sam Bockarie was in charge of the RUF?

  • It is Buedu, B-U-E-D-U.

  • This is different from the Baidu that you referred to earlier in Koindu?