The transcripts of the trial of Charles Taylor, former President of Liberia. More…

  • Good morning, witness.

  • Witness, as we concluded yesterday we reached the point where Charles Taylor had left as President and you had become President. Before I go on to talk about the period of your presidency, I did want to go back over some matters during Taylor's years in Liberia and get some clarification. You had told us yesterday that the NPFL grew; originally just a small group in Libya and then eventually into thousands in Liberia. In Liberia, how did the NPFL recruit its soldiers?

  • We had two groups recruitment. We had the voluntary recruitment and we had people who were captured and forced into the NPFL.

  • You also spoke of a particular case, the case that you were asked to investigate but were not able to, that involved the girlfriend, Jeneh, of General Kpeh and I looked at the record and I wasn't sure we have exactly what happened to each of them. What happened to General Kpeh?

  • The general was arrested in Grand Gedeh by Cassius Jacobs and was later executed.

  • Do you know why he was executed?

  • He was executed because of his involvement with Mr Taylor's brother, Nelson Taylor, who was ambushed and at that time he was the commander in the area where the ambush took place.

  • And the girlfriend, Jeneh, do you know what happened to her?

  • Jeneh was also investigated and was arrested. I was not there when she was investigated. She was arrested in Tapita and was executed by one Faneia, the commander of Tapita at the time.

  • And how do you spell Faneia?

  • And why was she executed?

  • She was executed because she was a girlfriend Kpeh, the commander at that time in Sinoe where the ambush took place and the brother of President Taylor was killed in that ambush. She was the girlfriend of Kpeh.

  • Kpeh, the K-P-E-H?

  • You have mentioned several times an organisation called ULIMO and the fights with ULIMO. When did, if you know, NPFL begin to fight with ULIMO?

  • ULIMO started fighting against the NPFL and at the initial stage it was immediately after the election. ULIMO was a group that was dissatisfied and it had two factions. We had ULIMO-K and ULIMO-J. The J belonged to the Krahn ethnic group and the K was the Mandingo ethnic group. They were not satisfied with the result of the election. That was why they jumped into the bush against the NPP-led government and they started fighting.

  • Witness, I believe there are several times you talk about for instance when Cassius Jacob was I think executed for desertion when ULIMO was allowed to take Gbarnga. When was that particular event, the taking of Gbarnga by ULIMO?

  • Just give me time to recall. No, I can't recall the date, but the event occurred that at one time when Mr Taylor left Gbarnga to go to Cote d'Ivoire or some place, I don't know where, and then ULIMO overran Gbarnga and captured the headquarters of the NPFL at that time. And Cassius Jacob, being the commander, fled to Ganta and he left. He deserted his post and he was investigated and he was charged for desertion and he was executed. I am sorry, I can't remember the exact time, but after some time maybe later on I will recall and I will tell you, your Honours, sir.

  • Well, at that time was it ULIMO-K or J or just ULIMO?

  • At that time it was ULIMO-K that was very active on our side. J was also in the making, but they were coming from the Sierra Leone side. ULIMO-J was trained on the side of Sierra Leone from Sierra Leone, but the ULIMO-K was coming from Guinea. So ULIMO-K was closer to us at that time. So they were the K that attacked Gbarnga.

  • Well, at the time of this attack, was this before or after Taylor became President?

  • Yes, yes, it was before Taylor became President. Sorry, I am very, very sorry. At that time we were in Gbarnga. We were still in Gbarnga and he became President when we moved to Monrovia, so at that time he was in Gbarnga.

  • So in terms of ULIMO's activities, I think earlier you said that they began after the election. Is that correct?

  • Yes, I am sorry, I will repeat. They were preparing for election and they did not want this election to take place. They wanted to forcibly take over government and we were still waiting for election. There was still confusion. I am very sorry.

  • Now just in terms of the record and making sure that we always know who "he" is in the record, there were questions that I put to you on Wednesday in regard to your conversation with Taylor as to Sankoh's visit. Your Honours, this is at page 9862 of the transcript and it appears at lines 18 to 29 and there is about four "he"s in this paragraph and I just want to make sure we know who "he" is, okay? And this is - you can remember this - or it goes - to pick it up, "He was walking around his palace where he lived in Gbarnga" and who was the "he"?

  • Taylor was walking around. Taylor was walking around his garden in Gbarnga.

  • "And I went close to him to salute him" and the "him" there is?

  • It was Mr Taylor that I went close to.

  • And then the transcript says, "Any conversation, he said he didn't know earlier that Foday Sankoh had talked to me about this matter"?

  • And then the next line is, "He said, 'Look, your man Foday Sankoh is here'."

  • "And he is saying that the people are destroying his people". Now who is that "he"?

  • That is Foday Sankoh.

  • "Destroying his people, looting his property. He said, 'How could the war be fought'" Who is the "he" there?

  • Okay.

    "When you talk about a guerilla war there's destruction and this is the type of thing - and this type of thing must happen if you are fighting a war. You are not eating bread and butter, you are fighting."

    And then, "If he continues with such a report", who is the "he" referred to there?

  • Taylor first and Sankoh is the second "he".

  • Okay. So it was Taylor making the comments about bread and butter and then it's Mr Sankoh - it's Taylor then referring to he, "If he continues with such a report"?

  • "He" is Sankoh. That if Sankoh continued with this kind of report he will have his men withdrawn.

  • Thank you very much for that clarification, witness. There is another place here where I wonder if we have - I just want to make sure we don't have an error. This is on page 9865 on the same day, three pages later, and the question was put to you at line 18: "Were there other Liberians that returned from Sierra Leone?" Then you answer:

    "Yes, later I went to Gbarnga because I was in Gbarnga, in and out of there, I saw this thing. I told you I saw Dopoe, Liberian Mosquito Christopher Varmoh, and they all agreed that they had returned from Sinoe. There was a conflict between them and Foday Sankoh."

    Is "Sinoe" what you meant to say?

  • No, it was not Sinoe. They had returned from Sierra Leone and that there was conflict between them and Foday Sankoh and they had to come back to Gbarnga.

  • And while we are on that subject of Liberians returning from Sierra Leone, did the Liberians bring anything back with them from Sierra Leone?

  • No, initially when the war started in Sierra Leone some came with vehicles, some came with other things like radios and a lot of properties. They brought them from there. And even girlfriends of commanders, they were always in and out of Sierra Leone when they were bringing the looted items to Gbarnga. That was where the name Kuwait came from, because Kuwait is an oil country and it has money. So if you heard that somebody was coming out of Kuwait it meant that they were coming out of where there was money.

  • And what was the source of these items that they were bringing back, do you know?

  • What was the source? Where had they obtained these items, if you know? From whom?

  • I wouldn't know, but I saw the items coming from out of there. I saw jeeps and vehicles, other cars. They all came from Sierra Leone with Sierra Leonean licence plates on them.

  • Okay. And while we're on the question of Sierra Leone, you had testified yesterday in regard to your visit to Sierra Leone when you were Vice-President and to visiting amputees and it's at page 9664 of the transcript and there are multiple places in your answer where you talk about saying that you were sorry. When you returned to Monrovia, did you talk to Taylor about your visit in Sierra Leone?

  • Yes, I told him, but I did not go into details that I visited the amputees, but I simply said that I went to present the document which was sent by him to be presented to President Tejan Kabbah and that I did. I did not say, because the concern was for me to deliver the letter and that I did. So I spoke to him about the document that I have given the document to President Sankoh as I was directed.

  • President Kabbah as I was directed, sorry. Sorry, your Honours.

  • Thank you very much, your Honour:

  • Did Taylor say anything about your visit?

  • Yes, later he got the information that I went to the amputees, but that I was not directed to do. He didn't say it to me, but he was not happy because he had been my boss and I knew when he was not happy, but he played me cool on that. He did not ask me further. So he left alone.

  • How did you know that he wasn't happy?

  • No, he did not query me about it and he did not ask further questions like why I had to go there and who sent you there. So, I mean, I just assumed that because he did not instruct me to go there I knew he was not happy about it.

  • Witness, you mentioned one of the Liberian leaders that was in Sierra Leone was a Dopoe Menkarzon. Did Dopoe have any other name or any other nickname that he was called by to your knowledge?

  • No, not that I can remember. Dopoe was just called Dopoe Menkarzon throughout the war.

  • And, witness, the - one final sort of clarification from the record. Yesterday at pages 10032 and 10033 we have questioning regarding this arms shipment that you said came in in August. I believe we had the context of it being a few days before Taylor's departure in August 2003 that was stopped by the peacekeepers at the airport or prevented from being given to the Liberians and I just want to be clear because I see morning, evening, evening, morning in this answer. When did Taylor come? Morning, evening, what time of the day, and when did the arms come?

  • Taylor arrived at night. Late night. And the arms shipment arrived early the following morning. Taylor arrived at night and the shipment arrived early in the morning.

  • Thank you very much, witness. Now just in terms of Taylor and his control in the NPFL and government, just some general questions so we have this absolutely clear. Before Charles Taylor became President, when he was NPFL leader, who gave orders to the fighters in the NPFL?

  • He was - before he became President he was called the commander-in-chief of the NPFL and he was the only one that could give orders for any operations. Nobody else but him, Taylor.

  • When he became President, and we are talking about military decisions, who made military decisions or gave military orders, let me put it that way, when Charles Taylor was President of Liberia?

  • He was again called the commander-in-chief. According to the constitution of Liberia, once you are a President you are the commander-in-chief and you take major decisions in military matters.

  • And the forces that Taylor had, or that the Liberian government had under Taylor, how were the forces - the military forces - organised? What kind of units were there in the military during Taylor's presidency?

  • When Taylor was President we had the Liberian army. That was organised, Liberian army, stationed at the Barclay Training Centre in Monrovia. But then he had his forces like the anti-artillery unit, like the ATU. The anti-artillery unit, the ATU. It was a very powerful unit organised by him and they took orders only from President Taylor and nobody else. And there were other units like the Marine unit. The previous units we had within the NPFL at that time, some were still active and they were standing by. They were not known to the public, but they were still standing by in case anything happened, because we had threats from the start of election, like I said. ULIMO-K and ULIMO-J were still standing by and they were in the bushes and they did not attack immediately, but later they started fighting again against the Government of Liberia.

  • Okay, you mentioned that there were these units that weren't well-known, but they were essentially - I don't want to put words in your mouth?

  • But what were those units?

  • They were at different locations and when he became President there were still people who were in opposition, like other citizens, other units, like other people from ULIMO-J and ULIMO-K. They could not come to Gbarnga. They were still afraid thinking that our forces like the Marine unit, artillery unit and the various units of different kinds and different operations, they were still there and they knew that they were in Gbarnga and they were in different camps that we had, secret places in Gbarnga and other parts of our controlled areas.

  • Well, now, could the commander of one unit give orders to the commander of another?

  • No, no, sir. This was a strong order. Even the commanders did not take orders from me as inspector general and as even Vice-President of Liberia. He was the sole commander of everything, even the defence minister could not give orders.

  • Sorry, I didn't mean to interrupt you. Please finish your answer.

  • I said even the defence minister could not give orders at that time. He was the sole commander-in-chief of the entire operations of the army.

  • Your Honour?

  • It is the two "he"s, Mr Rapp.

  • Sorry. Sorry, your Honours, sorry.

  • The "he"s that you were referring to was Mr Taylor?

  • Was Mr Taylor. Mr Taylor was the "he". Mr Taylor gave the orders.

  • Now, yesterday, or it may even have been the previous day, you had mentioned these organisations LURD and MODEL. When did they become active in Liberia?

  • It was later. It was the latter part of Taylor's presidency. That was when the name changed. The LURD group was out of ULIMO-K and the MODEL came from the ULIMO-J. That happened later and at that time his presidency was almost coming to an end.

  • And who was in charge, for the Liberian government, of operations against LURD and MODEL?

  • The name was changed from NPFL and the sole commander at that time - there were various commanders that I have just told you about, they were in charge of each and every unit, but Benjamin was the overall commander and he could move from unit to unit and taking instructions and carrying messages from President Taylor. He was also the biggest man that I could see at that time.

  • I think yesterday you were asked this question and you answered a question in regard to Benjamin Yeaten and his power in relation to the defence minister and I just want to be clear if we had that question. How was Benjamin Yeaten's power, how did that compare to the power of the defence minister?

  • Benjamin Yeaten grew so powerful that he did not even have regard for the Vice-President of Liberia at that time and the defence minister also was not considered to be anything in the face of Benjamin Yeaten and his powers at that time.

  • And who was the defence minister during Taylor's presidency?

  • He was Daniel Chea.

  • And while we are on that subject, I think yesterday you told us in Bockarie's killing - the official announcement that was made about Bockarie having been killed coming in from Cote d'Ivoire with his bodyguards, who was the defence minister that made that announcement?

  • It was still Mr Daniel Chea. He was still the defence minister.

  • Now, in regard to Benjamin Yeaten, you said that he became very powerful. Did he become more powerful than Mr Taylor?

  • No, no, he wouldn't. He was more powerful than the Vice-President and other ministers of government, but not more powerful than Mr Taylor.

  • Now, yesterday you talked about acts that Mr Yeaten was involved in, like the killing of Dokie, or even the killing of those disabled soldiers. Was Mr Yeaten ever punished for those actions?

  • No, he was never punished and the matter was never investigated.

  • We talked about Benjamin Yeaten and yesterday we discussed several other individuals that had different tasks under Taylor. Just as a general thing, who did Taylor consult with the most about decisions that he was to make?

  • There were other people in the government, like the leader of our party at that time, like mostly he consulted with people like the chairman of our party NPP, Cyril Allen, Cyril Allen, and sometimes with the commissioner of maritime affairs, Mr Benoni Urey, and sometimes he called himself prime minister, but it was a joke. He said, "These are the prime ministers of this government." That meant he was always with the President and he was always consulted by the President and there were a few that I cannot recall off head.

  • Now, this Cyril Allen, when did his relationship with Taylor begin, if you know?

  • From the days - I don't know how they met and how they became very friendly, but they were best of friends. They were friends for a very long time, according to what I observed myself.

  • And this Benoni Urey, the fellow you just said sometimes jokingly was referred to as prime minister, when did Taylor's relationship begin with him?

  • They had been old friends. They were very old friends. They had been old friends. They had been old friends. Into your question again, the speaker at that time, Nyundueh Monkomana, was also consulted on matters relating to government at that time. Those were very close friends of Mr Taylor that he could call on any time for consultation.

  • Who was the speaker you are referring to?

  • That is the fellow we talked about yesterday that --

  • -- potentially might have been the Vice-President.

  • Yes, sir, the Vice-President. Yes, sir.

  • Just to be clear, he was an individual that was someone I think you said Taylor would have liked to have had as his Vice-President, is that correct?

  • Yes, that was the fellow. Nyundueh Monkomana.

  • Now, you mentioned yesterday a person, a Bell Dunbar, and when did the relationship between Taylor and Bell Dunbar begin?

  • Bell was the friend of Taylor's wife that I know about and she also came closer to President Taylor and grew up to be the managing director of the Liberian refinery company, the petroleum refinery company. Bell Dunbar.

  • Again, when did that relationship begin, if you know?

  • Now, you had mentioned Grace Minor. When did the relationship with Grace Minor begin, if you know?

  • I wouldn't know. They were old friends. From the discussions that I listened to, they had been very old friends.

  • You mentioned also a woman by the name of Kaddieyatu Finlay. Do you know when that relationship began?

  • I wouldn't know but Kaddieyatu was a young girl and they met before he became President, because they talked like old friends anyway.

  • Now, yesterday you told us that Nathaniel Barnes, who was first finance minister, had been dismissed by Taylor. Who succeeded Mr Barnes as finance minister?

  • One Mr Charles Bright.

  • And when did, if you know, the relationship between Mr Taylor and Bright begin?

  • No, I wouldn't know, but they were old friends. They were old, old friends.

  • Do you know what Mr Bright had been doing prior to himself becoming finance minister?

  • Just one more question now we are talking about finances: The Central Bank of Liberia, who was in charge of the Central Bank of Liberia when Taylor was President?

  • The Central Bank of Liberia was headed by another friend of Taylor who is Mr - please, I will call the name later.

  • When you say a friend of Taylor, do you know how long he had had a relationship with that individual?

  • Yes, they had been friends. What I am speaking from is from my own observation. If you are talking to an old friend you would know and, being Vice-President, and sometimes this individual will come by him and then they will greet each other like old friends, but in public due respect to the President will be given, but in meetings in closed places, when they met with the President they would talk like very old friends and they discussed things. So that was how I looked at it, they were old friends.

  • And who appointed the head of the Central Bank of Liberia during Taylor's presidency?

  • It was the President. It was President Taylor.

  • Thank you for those answers. Let's now move to your own presidency. Yesterday you told us about being sworn in office and your comments on being sworn. What did you do about the conflict in your country on assuming the presidency?

  • I became President within a week and I contacted ECOWAS to get permission that I would be travelling through my neighbouring countries to see how best we could live together as good neighbours and I started with Sierra Leone. I spoke with Tejan Kabbah and then I moved on to Guinea and I talked to Lansana Conte and I tried to organise them to bring peace to my people in Liberia and then on to Cote d'Ivoire, yes, and I talked to --

  • I am sorry, I didn't mean to interrupt you. I was going to ask you about each visit, but finish your answer with regard to Cote d'Ivoire. Who did you talk to in Cote d'Ivoire?

  • I talked to Laurent Gbagbo, as President of Cote d'Ivoire, and lastly I went to Ghana and the President of Ghana was then the chairman of ECOWAS, and then on to Nigeria, because Nigeria had played a major role in the war in Liberia. They had given us great help, soldiers to ensure that peace returned to Liberia, and I went to congratulate him for his effort in bringing peace to our country.

  • And who did you meet in Nigeria?

  • I met Obasanjo, President Obasanjo.

  • Your Honours, if these aren't on the record we can provide them. Obviously they are common names of Presidents:

  • Let me just go back. You said Sierra Leone first. Do you remember what you specifically said to President Kabbah?

  • I went to Sierra Leone. I met with Tejan Kabbah. He welcomed me. I was received. We went to the State House and I started message to him by saying that I am very, very sorry - sorry, your Honours.

  • Mr Witness, it is just that everything is recorded and it's best you speak into the microphone. I appreciate there is a natural tendency to look at the person speaking to you. It's not always easy to overcome.

  • Sorry.

  • Okay. Sorry, your Honours.

  • Again just so we pick up that question and answer again, what did you specifically say to President Kabbah of Sierra Leone?

  • I told President Kabbah that it was not time for war during my presidency and that I will try my best to bring peace to both of us and I also promised that there would be no cross-border attacks coming from my side into his country and he promised too that he appreciated that I visited him and he said, "We are neighbours, we are supposed to live together" and he promised to come to Monrovia the following week to see me so that we could discuss further on the peace in Liberia.

  • I think when the microphone was moved you were saying something about sorry, you said sorry. What was it that you were precisely saying about your conversation with President Kabbah?

  • Yes, I was saying that it was not good that we fight and that I met the war on and war was coming out of Sierra Leone and from Liberia and I said that was not good and that we should stop fighting. I was speaking from my own side as President of Liberia, that it was not good to attack each other, I was not investigating him, I told him that that would not happen and that if it happened in the past I was sorry about it and that things were going on and on on both sides of the country, but that during my presidency I would discourage that and I would not let that happen.

  • I just want to be clear. Something had happened that you were sorry for. What was it that you said you were sorry for?

  • I told him that I was sorry, because I saw what happened during the presidency of President Taylor that there were a lot of accusations that Sam Bockarie was in Liberia or he was not in Liberia and that Liberians had entered into Sierra Leone to fight and a lot of things. A lot of things were happening. And that I told him, "If these things happened, I am sorry". Those were the things I started by saying. And that those accusations, I was sorry about them and that during my presidency they would not happen any longer and that I was sorry about that. And it did not happen. I stopped it.

  • You said you visited Guinea and saw President Conte. What did you say to him?

  • I told President Conte that there was war in Liberia and that people were coming out of Guinea fighting in Liberia and I apologised and I said, "Please stop this war, old man, if you have the capacity to stop this was. From my side you can rest assured that nobody will come out of Liberia to attack your country as long as I am President of Liberia. If there was anyone - I did not actually name anybody, but, "If there is anybody coming out of Guinea to fight against Liberia", I said, "Please sir, you should try to discourage that so that we can live together once again as good neighbours".

  • And what did President Conte say to you?

  • Conte promised and he admitted that in fact that there were groups coming out of Guinea to fight in Liberia and then he said, "Mr President, I welcome your visit, but you should do one thing for me". He said, "Please allow your brothers, call them to you, talk to them. Once you all start talking I will intervene". That was what he promised me. And he admitted that there was a group coming out of Guinea to fight against Taylor's government and he further said that, "I will tell them" - I am sorry, excuse me, that, "I will talk to them about attacking Liberia and they will stop". And he said, "You have to do the same thing from your side".

  • Then you said you visited Cote d'Ivoire and saw President Gbagbo.

  • Is that spelled G-B-A-G-B-O?

  • And what did you say to him?

  • When I went to Cote d'Ivoire I was received like a President of my country and I was very happy and he was also happy. He organised a press conference and he spoke first and he said, "You have come here, I welcome you, but please let me speak". Then I said, "You can go ahead to speak". What he said was that something happened in the past which he did not like and I said, "What was it?"

    He said, "I will give you a parable" and I said, "What is it, Mr President?" He said, "If your neighbour's house is on fire would you put gasoline on the fire or would you bring water to quench the fire?" And I asked him what that meant. Then he said, "This message and this parable goes to the former President of Liberia, Charles Taylor". He said, "Charles Taylor saw my house on fire and instead of putting the fire off, he added gasoline to the fire and the fire started blazing everywhere in my country". He said, "As I am sitting down here I am sitting in a divided country" and he did not like it. He had his properties looted, Caterpillars in companies. He named so many other things that went on in his country. He said so many people died and he said a lot of things.

    In conclusion I said, "Look, I am now President of Liberia. Taylor is gone, he is no longer President, but I want to promise you one thing. As of today nobody - no soldier - will live under my command as commander-in-chief of Liberia will cross into that Cote d'Ivoire with a penknife, I am not talking about guns, to attack your country by any means. I will discourage that. I promise you. I have people in position right now to stop such incursions against you". That was the promise I made and it went on as I promised until I retired as President.

  • Now just to be clear on the "he", this assurance that no-one would cross the border even with a penknife from one country to the other, who was saying that and what direction was that, that border crossing that you were discussing?

  • I was talking directly from Liberia as President of Liberia. From any direction that anybody could just imagine to pass through to enter the country, I told him it will not be possible. And exactly like I said I had people in position to stop it. And even when market people were crossing I ensured that they made proper checks to know why they were going to that Cote d'Ivoire and I did the same thing on the borders into Liberia and to that he agreed.

  • The same thing on the borders into Liberia?

  • The same incursion, yes. Any trouble coming from Cote d'Ivoire with guns or penknife or with even bad intentions to attack Liberia, he should discourage that. And President Gbagbo agreed to that.

  • Now do you know anything about what he was referring to, the supposed gasoline that had been poured on the fire, according to him, by President Taylor?

  • Yes, he simply said that if you had a neighbour and the neighbour is in trouble, he is on his knees, what you should have done was to go to him and hold him by his hands, lift him up to ensure that he stood straight. But then he also said another parable, that you should not go to step on his back to push him down further, to drag him on the ground. Then he said that was the former President Taylor. He said he was in trouble, people were fighting against him, his own soldiers were fighting against him, but Taylor did not stop that and that, instead of sending soldiers into his country, he sent to fight him and he said he did not like that and he said that is one thing he will never forget and that, "Even though I welcome you as President of Liberia into my country, but that particular incident I will never forget it. It will take a long time to wipe that away from my heart". And I kept saying to him, "Sorry, sorry, sorry. I will do as I promised".

  • Now you said you visited Ghana and met with President Kufuor there. What did you say to him?

  • Yes, I went to explain to Kufuor. He was a little bit concerned at the reason I was going around the region and I told him this was a peace mission, that I was trying to unite my neighbours and that I was trying to calm them down about the wars that took place in Liberia. Whatsoever had happened had happened. Let bygones be bygones so that we would live as good neighbours once again. And he said it was a good idea and he congratulate me and he said I was doing well.

    I also said I was on my way to Nigeria to talk to the Godfather Obasanjo who had helped Liberia so much during war and he tried to bring peace to my country and then I left and I went on to Nigeria.

  • And Kufuor is spelt K-U-F-U-O-R, is that correct?

  • Yes.

  • And you told us you had met President Obasanjo in Nigeria which I think is spelt O-B-A-S-A-N-J-O, is that correct?

  • I think you told us something about that conversation already, but would you tell us precisely what you did say to him?

  • The conversation with?

  • With the President of Nigeria, with Obasanjo?

  • At that time I was on my way to the Nigeria. I visited Ghana first and I went to Obasanjo and I told Obasanjo that I needed more help and that he had done well, peace is gradually returning to Liberia and that he had done well even by taking President Taylor to his country and that was for the sake of peace, to bring peace to Liberia and I thanked him very much for what he did. And I also explained to him that I had been talking to my neighbours trying to reassure them that there would be no more war coming out of Liberia to attack their countries and he was very happy. He congratulated me and he said that was the best thing a President should do in his region and that he said he was trying too to live good with his neighbours and the citizens of his country to live in peace. And he congratulated me and I went back to Liberia. I spent the night in Nigeria and I went back home the following day.

  • Now you have just told us that you had indicated to President Obasanjo that peace was returning to Liberia. What was happening in Liberia at the time precisely?

  • There was a bitter fight in Liberia. There was war between LURD, MODEL, the Liberian government and he had been helping with soldiers through the United Nations and he had sent soldiers to Liberia on two occasions as peacekeeping force and a lot of them died in the process and he did not withdraw them. He said they will continue until peace returned to Liberia and that I congratulated him for also. And there was war in Liberia at that time and he tried to stop the war to bring peace to the people of Liberia.

  • Now on your return to Liberia what did you do about the conflict in Liberia?

  • When I came back to Liberia I tried to call on the warring factions to bring them together and MODEL was very receptive to the whole invitation. MODEL was willing to come and LURD was willing to come, and before they started communicating with me that he was coming for peace talk to Liberia, or to me in Monrovia, he also added his own idea that he did not have television. He wanted a satellite television, a DSTV in Gbarnga at his headquarters in Bomi Hills where he was stationed. The leader of LURD, Sekou Conneh, he was staying there. I promised him that I will send him the satellite TV and that I was going to send him gasoline for his vehicles and he must come to see me in Monrovia, but unfortunately for me I spoke to the head of the peacekeepers at that time, the troops from Nigeria, he agreed, he made the arrangements and I prepared food, dancers, the cultural troops of Liberia were present to receive him, but unfortunately for me at a marketplace called Red Light, before reaching my compound, three pick-ups loaded with armed men came with a heavy force and when they entered the market they asked the people to close the market down and that they were on their way to the President's house and that they did not want anybody on the road. Then the market people said, "No, if you are coming for peace talk you shouldn't come like this with arms and ammunition."

    All they did was that the peacekeepers asked me to disarm everybody that I had around me, because my soldiers should be disarmed because it will not - the commander of LURD will be afraid that he was coming to my house and if he saw people hanging around my house with arms, and I did that. When I heard later that there was fighting going on with the marketers and that they jumped out of the pick-up, they were stopping the people not to go, because - to come to me, because they said their intention was not good.

    Then about an hour I heard gunshots in the market and then the only peacekeepers assigned to me, the commander said to me that I should go into the Moak [phon] and run away for my safety, because he said the group that was coming to me - but I said, "I will not run. As long as I am President of Liberia, if you are powerful, if you are big, if you come here to kill me you will kill me as President." So there was a big argument. So I went to the back to my men who were disarmed and I asked them to rearm them and then we went to the place, to the marketplace, where the shooting was taking place, but at that time the LURD leader, Sekou Conneh, had turned his vehicle and he was running back to Bomi Hills where he came from and in that incident about three people were killed. I took the bodies, I sent the bodies to funeral homes and these people who were killed were market women. They were not involved with war, only that they got killed during crossfire and that discouraged the peace meeting for a while, and later I rearranged for a latter date for peace talks to resume. That was how I started bringing peace to Liberia.

  • Now, I just want to be clear. The name of this LURD leader, what was his name again?

  • His name is Conneh, Sekou Conneh.

  • How is that spelled?

  • S-E-K-O-U, Sekou. C-O-N-N-E-H, Conneh.

  • Now, you said there was a second peace meeting. What were you able to accomplish after that second attempted peace meeting?

  • Well, I talked through legislators. I talked to the ministers of my government and this time the meeting was held in the Executive Mansion and I was able to convince Sekou Conneh to come and the other commander of LURD who was also there, I will recall his name later. We started talking peace and I told them - I appealed to them that I was not here for power. The presidency I am here for came out of the meeting in Ghana, that I will only be here for 60 days as President and we will have to elect our chairman who was - the chairman that was elected in Ghana will have to come and I will turn over the presidency to him for the sake of peace and we shall run a government until we have an election in this country. They all accepted what I said. I also promised them, I said, "For you to be to believe that you have come here and that I invited you here for peace, I will start disarming myself tomorrow. As we leave this conference tomorrow morning, if you have any representatives to send to make sure I will start voluntary disarmament. I will give over the weapons of the government to ECOMOG - to ECOMIL, to have them under their custody and I will be without arms and ammunition because I am out for peace and I am expecting you to do the same."

    Judge, your Honours, can I use the restroom?

  • Mr Rapp, please have a seat.

  • Mr Rapp, the witness before he rose mentioned disarming and giving the weapons to somebody and I wasn't sure exactly who or what that was.

  • Thank you very much, your Honour:

  • Witness, in your previous answer I think you were talking about the disarmament process and then you mentioned an organisation and I thought I heard the word ECOMIL. What were you referring to?

  • Yes, a voluntary disarmament. I disarmed voluntarily, as I promised the warring factions in the meeting. These arms were given to the ECOMIL group from the United Nations. They were responsible for the disarmament in Liberia later.

  • I just want to be clear, because we have heard about ECOMOG before.

  • No, sorry, ECOMOG was before then, before the war, before the war ended.

  • And yesterday we spelled out this word UNMIL, or UNMIL, which was it, or was it a third group?

  • UNMIL was the last UN organisation that was responsible for disarmament. As time went by they were changing the names. There was ECOMOG, ECOMIL, then we had UNMIL. The UNMIL is the one that is now in position in Liberia. They are all from the United Nations.

  • Just to be clear, at the time of this disarmament during your presidency, was it UNMIL, or was it some other organisation that the weapons were turned over to?

  • No, it was not UNMIL then. UNMIL came in later. When peace was in place and I was ensuring that the peace holds, that was when UNMIL started to supervise.

  • In terms of your relationships with the United Nations, did you have any contact with the United Nations yourself as President?

  • Yes, the representatives of the Secretary-General of the United Nations were in Liberia at the time and he had meetings with me to ensure that the peace process was on course. He was visiting me at my house to encourage me to put more pressure on the fighting men and some men under my command, as commander in-chief, were very hostile to the peacekeepers. What they were saying was that they will disarm, but that the peacekeepers were planning to attack and they will arrest them and I told them, "No, that was not the intention." I told them the peacekeepers were here to bring peace to Liberia. I was able to convince them and some started to turn in their weapons from their various places of assignment.

  • During the course of your 60 day presidency, what happened with the United Nations presence in Liberia?

  • Their presence - they were good, there was no trouble. I tried to keep the situation calm as President. The relationship was good. Nothing serious happened.

  • And what about the numbers of United Nations peacekeepers in Liberia, what happened with that during your presidency?

  • What I could remember was that the number increased and some were brought over from Sierra Leone to augment the strength of the men on the ground at the time. That's what I can remember.

  • Did you discuss this with the special representative?

  • Yes, we discussed. We discussed a lot of issues that I cannot remember off head now. We had a lot of talks. There were talks every time. There were meetings every time, talking, and there were reports from everywhere in Liberia. I was head of government as President and I was chairing meetings every day. Every day there was a meeting to bring peace to Liberia.

  • And, witness, a few moments ago you mentioned the resistance among your soldiers to disarmament. Were you able to persuade people to disarm?

  • In some instances I was able. In others I had to use force on some of the fighting men. They didn't want to - President Taylor had just left and some were still hostile to me. They wanted me to pay them. President Taylor had promised to pay them and he didn't and I must pay them their money. These guns were things by which they lived, they had their checkpoints, they had their guns to patrol to make their money and now I was trying to disarm them. I must give them money.

    At one time my house was surrounded and they said if I did not pay they were going to set my house ablaze and they will harm my family. There was a very big confusion. Then UNMIL came in and assisted me and arrested some of the fighters and took them to prison and later UNMIL decided that they were going to pay them some benefits at least to save the day and bring peace to Liberia.

  • Mr Rapp, I am sorry to interrupt your line of questioning, but I would like to clarify who exactly we are talking about. We have had reference to groups such as the ATU, the EMG, LURD, MODEL and I presume somewhere in the background is a regular army. So when we are talking about people living by their guns and soldiers, this disparate group, who are we referring to?

  • Madam President was inviting me to put the question just to be clear. Who were the people that were complaining to you about having to give up their guns?

  • These were groups from our former NPFL group. It was not from LURD. It was not from the regular army. It was not from MODEL. It was only the NPFL group that had known me who came closer that I must pay them for what they did for the NPP-led government.

  • And at the time that they came to you, what had been their positions during the Taylor government? Had they been in any units or organisations during that period of time?

  • There was - there was the ATU that started the harassment. They started coming to me with force. And later other groups, the Marine unit, the artillery unit. It was not just one unit that started this thing. Other units joined in later, but the first group to attack me for pay was the ATU group.

  • Thank you, witness. As far as these individuals that were attacking you, how long did those kinds of expressions and those attacks continue?

  • It went on for about a month. Pretty close to a month. I was always in problems with them. Sometimes I will calm them down, I will call the commanders, we will talk and he will assure me he will calm the boys. And when they continued coming and I was - that I was in danger with them, because I was not armed any more and I didn't have the power I had, because I had disarmed myself previously voluntarily, so I had to inform the United Nations. I did that and the UN came in with a very good force and my house was fully protected. I had some artillery, war tanks, all surrounding my house to keep them at bay.

  • Witness, let's just jump ahead for a moment. In the period after your presidency did you have any contact with these individuals and did they express anything to you?

  • Yes, they came again, the individuals. The group came again. When I retired - when I resigned my post as President on one occasion, just one occasion, it was not a big group, the representatives from the group came. I think there were four or five men. They said I must see to it that they get their monies from the United Nations as promised and if I don't I will be the one to pay them the money that the government owed them. That was when Gyude Bryant was the chairman. He got involved and I told him, Gyude Bryant, "I am no longer President of this country, you are chairing this transitional government and they said this is my problem". He said, "No, I will intervene. I will call the men to me and make them understand you were acting as President of Liberia. You are no more President. Nobody has claims to you". That was when that stopped and they stopped coming to me.

  • And just in terms of the names and we may have it in the record otherwise, but Gyude Bryant I believe is G-Y-U-D-E, is it not? Am I correct on that?

  • Okay. Well, anyway I think it's G-Y-U-D-E first name, second name Bryant, B-R-Y-A-N-T. But we will correct that if that's incorrect.

  • Mr Rapp, I don't recall that the witness has told us the exact period when he was President - the exact time when he was President.

  • Witness, when was the exact time that you were President?

  • I was President of Liberia for 60 days.

  • From when to when is what I mean?

  • What months were you President?

  • I was President from 11 August to 11 October 2003.

  • Thank you very much, witness. What's your relations today with these men that were disarmed?

  • Well, the relationship I should say is good, but before I left Monrovia to come to this Court there was - there was some - there was some threats. I got a report from my security men, there were leaflets on my house with threatening statements that if I come to testify in this matter I will be killed. That will be the end of my life and that of my family.

    I am not accusing anyone, because I did not see them, but it sounded like the former soldiers of our fighting force, NPFL. But, anyway, we tried to manage the situation as it is. Even as I am here now I am quite worried. We have security in place. Maybe if we hear some strange news then let it be. God is there, it will not happen. But I was under threat from time to time, more especially when I was coming here to testify.

  • Witness, during this 60 days when you were President what was the financial situation of the Liberian government?

  • Well, there was nothing left in the coffers of the government. The ministry of finance was completely empty. There was no money because the period I was President of Liberia there was a lot of fighting going on. There were no taxes being paid, companies were closed down. There was no money coming in to the government coffers and there was no way they could come because there was a lot of fighting going on. Everywhere where government was supposed to get money was closed and there wasn't any money.

  • You mentioned the minister of finance. Did you ask him where the money had gone that had been in the treasury?

  • I asked him and he said the money, some was taken away by the previous government, they had to pay this, they have taken some money from some companies in advance and they will not be able to pay any money from now for about a year. The government, they have money and the little money the government had the previous government had taken it away. That was from what he said. And I was President for 60 days. I was not paid - up until I am speaking to you I have not been paid for the period for which I was President.

  • Witness, you mentioned this 60 days period and a meeting in Accra and something that happened there. What happened in Accra in regard to the term - the 60 day term - of your office? Perhaps I should rephrase the question. How was it determined that you were going to stay in office for 60 days?

  • Well, the ECOWAS leaders were not sure. Everybody was hesitant. They were linking me with my previous President. They were saying, "Look, that is the tactics he has been able to play, he will not give up power as he promised". Nobody was sure. Even if the - they spoke to the United Nations that if I did not step down what will happen? So they were not satisfied. That was what I could remember. Exactly on October 11, the end of my 60 days, I was able to resign as President of Liberia and they were very surprised that it happened.

  • And why were they surprised?

  • Because they thought - like I said, they said they were linking me with my previous President and saying that this is the kind of thing, they have not been stable, he has been Vice-President under Charles Taylor, he will not resign, he is just buying time to fight, you know. There were a lot of rumours everywhere, every corner. They were surprised that I made a promise and I kept to my word and that I was able to turn in the presidency as I did, as I promised. That was why they were surprised, yes.

  • And when had you made that promise? When had you made the promise to leave office after 60 days?

  • I made - I promised when I took over as President. When I was sworn in as President of Liberia I promised that I will not go one day after the 60 days. Under no circumstances would I stay in office after 60 days and I went by my promise.

  • And, witness, let's move on up towards the present. After your presidency were you ever approached by investigators from the Special Court for Sierra Leone?

  • Yes, I was approached by a few investigators on one or two or three occasions. Yes, I was approached. Yes.

  • And what did you say to them?

  • They tried to enquire. First of all, they were very polite in their questions to me. Some things I cannot remember two or three times. They asked me if I was aware that there was a Court in Liberia - in Sierra Leone to try the President of Liberia and I said, "Yes, I am aware", and said, "Well?" One question that came first was if I am aware that Sam Bockarie was killed in Liberia and that, "We were hearing that you were around during his killing", and I explained exactly what I had explained to the Court: That I was in the village where he was taken and they were leaving, they passed my village and they returned. So they kept coming, they kept coming at different times, finding out different things from me. That is how they approached me.

  • Well, did you ever ask them if you were a suspect of the Court, or a target of investigation?

  • Were you ever asked by them whether you were suspected by the Court, or were a target of investigation?

  • Yes, I asked that question on one occasion. I asked that question, why these questions should be asked to me, and they told me "no", they told me purely "no". They said the only person that they had to answer questions in this matter would be President Taylor, but because he was President at the time and that they were not after any other person to go to The Hague to answer questions to the Special Court. That was what they told me.

  • Did you receive anything from them in regard to that question of your own situation?

  • No, they did not. In the first instance what they did when they came in was that they wanted me to go to the German embassy where they were based. One of the investigators came to me and said that, "You will not take your car to the German embassy. We will give you money initially to go to the German embassy to answer some questions."

  • Well, did they ever give you a letter in regard to your own - whether you were subject of investigation?

  • It was at a later date a letter came. Just recently a letter came, a letter like clearing me, that I was not concerned with the case in The Hague and this it was only Taylor - this letter was signed by one Johnson, one of the judges of the Court, that I have been cleared, I should not worry about this matter. They had wanted to find facts. I shouldn't put that in my mind that I was going to be investigated behind closed doors. I think that was all they said. The letter is not here with me now.

  • Well, I believe we distributed copies of a letter signed by Mr Johnson earlier and if we could have the Registry provide that to the witness:

  • Witness, if you would now look at the screen, is that the letter you were referring to?

  • Yes, that is the letter I am referring to.

  • So, your Honours, we would ask that this --

  • Counsel for the Defence have seen this document?

  • I have seen the document, your Honour, but I think it ought to be made clear by my learned friend that this letter did not come from a judge of this Court, but from a senior Prosecutor.

  • Yes, that is right. I am sorry, yes.

  • Certainly, your Honours, the letter speaks for itself. It was signed by James Johnson, acting Prosecutor, on 30 October 2006. Could we have it marked for identification with a number?

  • Yes, that will be MFI-19.

  • That is correct, your Honour.

  • Is it 20 or 19? I thought it was 19.

  • 19.

  • It is a one page document dated 30 October 2006 and it addresses, "For the attention of Mr Moses Blah."

  • Your Honour, it is MFI-19.

  • For the avoidance of doubt I will repeat that it is MFI-19.

  • Thank you very much, Madam President. There will be another two items to be placed before the witness that have been distributed and earlier disclosed, but they are not in the tabs. The first one that I would like displayed to the witness is a document of six pages with the heading, "Special Court for Sierra Leone, all disbursements for witness ", and it contains a number of entries, 20 entries, the first beginning with number 1 with "D Cunningham". If that document could be placed before the witness:

  • Now, witness, during the course of your meetings with representatives of the Office of the Prosecutor, or investigators from the Office of the Prosecutor in the Special Court, you have already said that there were some expenses paid to you for a particular visit to an interview at the German embassy.

  • Did you receive other payments of expenses from those investigators?

  • Yes, sometimes they will come, I will put my generator on because in my - I will put my generator on for a few hours. When they are leaving they will say, "Oh no, we will have to give you something because you have your generator on, some $50." They will leave that and then I will sign for it and they will give me sometimes scratch cards for my phone. They will call me and sometimes they would want me to call back in Sierra Leone, so they will leave scratch cards with me to enable me to call whenever they call, yes.

  • Well, just to look at this particular document that is on the screen at the moment, have you seen this document before?

  • No, I have just seen it here. I didn't see it. I have not seen it.

  • Well, then, witness, just looking at item number 1, Tuesday 31 October 2006, made by D Cunningham, category is lost wages/transport, amount $50, checked US dollars, do you recall receiving in and around that time a payment of $50?

  • And when it says lost wages, were you losing wages at the time?

  • Yes, I have - at the time that was spent to me, sometimes I will be in my shop, I had a business going. They will take me, I will have to close the shop for a while and they say, "We will not talk long with you as you are going", and they say, "Okay, we will leave about $50, we will leave about $30." That is how it went on and on, but I cannot even remember some of these things because I had a business. I have a very big business centre where I stay during the day. My wife has a business centre, a boutique downtown Monrovia. Sometimes I go to the boutique downtown to stay in the store when she is not present.

  • Now, item 3 refers to property, category property, but reads, "In payment to retrieve documents from his property which is up country", and the amount is 450 US dollars. Do you remember that payment?

  • Yes, I remember that.

  • And do you know why that payment was made?

  • It was made because as we spoke over some documents they wanted from me it was - they were not in Monrovia at the time and that I should use my jeep, my two vehicles, to go. Usually I send my backup vehicle with the security and myself. We went on to Nimba, to Toweh Town, to and from there to bring these documents back, because I had to have some references to some questions they wanted me to answer.

  • I apologise in interrupting my learned friend, but I noted that my learned friend asked the witness about item 1, skipped item 2 and went to item 3. I was wondering whether he was intending to deal with incidental expenses under head number 2 on that page, for completeness that is.

  • I am sure that if he doesn't, you will, Mr Griffiths, but I don't think it is an objection. It is for counsel to conduct his examination-in-chief, but, Mr Rapp, you have heard counsel for the Defence.

  • If I might be permitted to reply to a non-objection, it is not my intention to mention every one of these items, but to deal with the categories so we can understand what is involved and I presume counsel will be able to cross-examine about anything that I miss:

  • We discussed item 3 on property and this trip up country to get these documents. Let me go down to items 7 and 8. I see transport and medical on one for $100 and then I see, I guess it is a month and a half later, 370, medical/transport/lost wages. Why were you being paid medical, or expenses for medical?

  • It was on one occasion when the investigator visited the house I was really sick. I have a cardiac problem and I was in a hospital. They waited. When they called I was on my way from the hospital. They wanted to talk and I said, "Well, look, I cannot talk today, because I am sick and I am going back to the hospital tomorrow. I have to take with me some money to pay my doctors", so they looked at some of the receipts and said, "Well, if we come tomorrow, if you really owe the doctor and we are taking your time to talk to you, we will have to help with these medical bills." That was when these monies were paid. The following day, when they came I took the money to the doctor and paid the bills, based on the prescriptions and other things that had to do with the doctor that were all presented to them.

  • Well, I see a number of other items if we go over the page to 3: 300 for medical, 21 March 2007; two days later 538 for medical and fuel, also just deal with medical; 7 May of the same year, going over the page on page 4, item 13, 100 for medical; 14 mentions medical as one of the things, including lost wages and meals, for $200, that is way up in October 2007; 12 December 2007, 600 for medical; and then on 7 January 2008, $2,150 for medical. What was the reason for these medical expenses, for this medical expense reimbursement?

  • Yes, at the time all the monies were being paid. At one time I was hospitalised. They came, I almost - I had a mild stroke on my left foot. It went completely dead. I had to do a lot of tests. They were taking me here and there for examinations. At one time the doctor recommended that I must go to Cote d'Ivoire because they did not have the equipment in Liberia to do some scanning on my body. At this time I was very, very sick. I was not walking correctly. I couldn't even walk. When these monies were paid they got involved and ensured that I went to hospital. The investigator said that.

  • Now, witness, going over the page to number 5, I see number 17, transport, $1,970, purchase of airline tickets. Then down in 20 I see $485 for purchase of additional airline ticket for his staff. What was the purpose of those payments?

  • At the time the doctors recommended that I go to - the doctors that recommended, those in Abidjan - I had been to the hospital in Ghana previously. Then my first doctor which I certified with the prescription and the medical reports from Liberia said that I must go to see my doctors in Ivory Coast. If this is not done, I will be in danger and I was very, very frightened. That was when the tickets were bought. Three tickets were bought, mine and two tickets for my two bodyguards.

  • And the ticket down here on number 20 that was purchased five days later, who was that ticket for?

  • It was at one time when I sent my boys to buy medicines, medication. The medication I am taking is not sold in Liberia nowhere. That was costing me a lot of money and as time went by I was sent to Abidjan to bring the drugs with me, but the drugs got finished and I had to send again to buy because we do not have the kind of drugs that I am taking now in Liberia.

  • Now this trip that you were going to see the doctor in Abidjan, were you going to do anything else when you were in Abidjan?

  • No, I was only going there to see my doctor.

  • And, witness, did you in fact take that trip?

  • No, I did not go and I was pending - I suspended the trip because of the harassment. It was just about the time when the leaflets were flying. The people - it was said in the paper that it was stuck everywhere on my house, on my shop, on my phone that if you leave here it means that you are going to The Hague to testify. You will come - when you come back you will meet your house burnt to the ground, we will kidnap your children from school. I have those documents now on me.

    So I suspended the trip and said, "Look, I will wait and see". I have got the tickets with me right now. I can go back to Abidjan as soon as I finish from here to see my doctor. The trip was not made.

  • Your Honour, we would ask that this particular document of six pages be marked for identification.

  • That is a six page document entitled "Special Court for Sierra Leone, all disbursements for witness" and it is in subparagraphs 1 to 20 and it becomes MFI-20.

  • Now, witness, prior to you coming to The Hague did you have occasion to meet officers or individuals that worked for the Witness and Victim Section of the Court?

  • Yes, we met in Monrovia.

  • And what did you discuss with them?

  • I discussed my security concerns. If I was coming to The Hague to testify, according to these leaflets and things going around that was threatening my life and the lives of my family, I said, "Well, I cannot leave my premises in such a condition. I must be secured when I am out of here and wheresoever I will be both my home and my premises must be protected". Those were my concerns that I expressed to them.

  • Could we have the Registry show the witness another document that we have disclosed that is a Special Court for Sierra Leone, heading "Inter-office memorandum" from Naeem Ahmed" dated 7 May 2008, a one page document:

  • And, witness, if I can direct your attention to this document, it makes reference to the WVS putting security and other facilities in place for that security and in line 3 it says the current cost of these measures is $3,200? Do you know how that cost was arrived at?

  • Yes, because there were additional securities. I had security from UNMIL, I had security on my own, my own security guards. So we had to have - we had additional securities for the surrounding because the threat was not taken lightly. Besides the threat on me, there was other visible things that were happening. People became annoyed. At night we had black cloth around my back gate. So at this time we had to put security in place and they are in place. As I am talking to you now, my house is heavily guarded. It all comes to security and we had to pay for this. I have to pay.

  • And without naming any individuals, how many people live at your house approximately?

  • My family members. In my house I have my children, I have my grandchildren, my wife, my wife's relatives, approximately about - the children in my house in school they are 22. My family is about roughly 20, 15, 32 - maybe 50 persons live in my house. I have a house - a two storeyed building. It has so many rooms. There is a boys quarter in my house. I have children living there who are going to school. Some are children I am caring for, some are my grandchildren, my relatives' children. If you know being a President in Africa then you know a lot of responsibility rests on you. People who were not able whom you want to help - in fact as I am speaking to you if you see my house, you go into that compound you will think it is some kind of a refugee camp. We eat rice - mostly we eat about a bag of rice a day, or two days, in my house. That is the kind of strain I have. Right now as I am sitting here I worry all the time.

  • Witness, in this document before you I see a number 4. It says: "In addition he", you, "were provided with money for conducting a medical examination for determining fitness to travel and for the procurement of drugs. The amount expend was $500". Is that correct?

  • Yes, the drugs were bought.

  • This particular document then we would ask your Honours if it can be marked for identification in the next sequence.

  • Thank you. This is a one page document headed "Special Court for Sierra Leone, inter-office memo" and it is addressed to the Defence team's CT case, dated 7 May 2008. It becomes MFI-21.

  • Thank you very much, your Honour:

  • Before we leave this payments question, there was - without putting it back in front of you, there was one item on the list of payments made by the Office of the Prosecutor that I wanted to ask about and that was number 19, 26 January 2008: "Family expenses while the witness is supposed to travel to meet with OTP. Category, family. Amount 1000". What was that about?

  • What page was that?

  • 19? Yes, I remember this. I remember this. In January I moved up to - was it in Cote d'Ivoire? Ghana? I went to Ghana. On this occasion wanted to get - there were some unpaid receipts that I was supposed to pay in Ghana. My embassy in Ghana was informed, so I had to rush to Ghana to sort this one out. I paid even some additional money. The previous bill that I had was not paid and so I was in Ghana for about a day and I brought the medication with me from the hospital.

  • Well, witness, let me move ahead with another matter. Your appearance here I think the record will reflect will be - is subject to a subpoena. Prior to that subpoena being delivered to you, did anyone discuss that subpoena with you?

  • Yes, the investigators approached me. I had two options. I said, "Look, I am sick, I am not well. Any time you are here I feel embarrassed asking you to pay these hospital bills and this to me, except I leave this country, if it's a force, if it's a subpoena, you subpoena me, then I will not be hostile to an international Court. I have must go under any condition. But if this is not done I will not leave this country to go anywhere".

  • Witness, I wonder if now you could help us with certain exhibits and if we have some pictures that are in the binder, I think at tab 31, and they are given the letters and the letters are A, B, C, D, E, F and there is something on the back of them, but I just want the witness to be shown the front of those documents. If those could be taken to the witness and displayed on the projector. Okay, witness, a document has been placed in front of you that I believe has an ERN number 00039998 over on the right side. Do you recognise the person in that picture?

  • Yes, I recognise Benjamin Yeaten and --

  • Which one is he?

  • Benjamin Yeaten is on the left with a communication on his ear.

  • Do you recognise any other person in that photograph?

  • Yes, another bodyguard to Benjamin Yeaten, sir. Sylvester Willor. He is on the right, right behind him.

  • And Sylvester Willor, how do you spell that? Willow like willow tree?

  • Yes, willow tree. W-I-L-L-O-R, Willor.

  • I am wondering which of the several people on the right is the tree?

  • Perhaps if the witness could hold up the paper and indicate to us. That might be the most practical way.

  • Or perhaps if the witness could show with a pen.

  • Yes, with a pen on the screen, please, Mr Witness, if you could point out the person you have identified as Sylvester Willor.

  • Do you want me to come on that side? On the left is Benjamin Yeaten, General Benjamin Yeaten. Then on the right right behind him is Sylvester Willor. Those two people I recognise, sir.

  • Okay. I think that clearly reflects in the transcript who he is talking about, so let's move to B and ask if you recognise the individuals in B and point them out and describe where they are as you point them out, if you recognise any person on the projector?

  • The one on the right with the shades is called Yanmayan.

  • And is that spelt Y-A-N-M-A-Y-A-N?

  • And what's his first name?

  • And what was his position during the Taylor administration, if you know?

  • Previously he was a commander of the Executive Mansion Guard unit when we were in Gbarnga, but later he was dismissed. I met him in Monrovia going to school at the University of Liberia. At present he is working for the Firestone Plantation in Liberia. I don't know what the job is there.

  • Do you recognise anyone else in that picture?

  • No, I only recognise this very well, the man with the shades.

  • That would conclude our examination on that picture. Then let's move to C. By the way the picture we just looked at, the ERN was P0000637. Now we have a picture with the ERN P0000791. Do you recognise any persons in this picture and in this case, witness, perhaps if you would go to the left and point it out on the projector, because there are a lot of people I see here.

  • I can see Benjamin Yeaten first.

  • Can you point him out?

  • Excuse me. There is Benjamin Yeaten, former President Taylor.

  • Excuse me, Mr Witness, could you please point out Benjamin Yeaten again as it wasn't translated on the screen.

  • Witness, as you point out the individuals would you just put the point of your up toward them. First Benjamin Yeaten?

  • This is Benjamin Yeaten.

  • And this is the former President Taylor.

  • At the back is senior aide-de-camp N'jie, Musa N'jie.

  • Okay, who else, and then we will get clear places?

  • And right there is Mrs Jewel Howard Taylor, the wife of the President.

  • And anyone else?

  • This is Joseph Montgomery, the deputy director of SS operations. That is all I can remember.

  • Then, your Honour, may the record reflect that from left to right below the stairs the witness has identified Yeaten as the person on the left, the person next to him to the right is former President Taylor, the next person to the right is Jewel Howard Taylor and the final person that's in full view to the right is Joe Montgomery. Additionally right behind President Taylor I believe that the witness identified Musa N'jie. That's correct:

  • Now, before we pass from that picture, who was Musa N'jie?

  • Musa N'jie was the senior aide-de-camp to the President, to President Taylor at the time.

  • And where is he from?

  • He is from The Gambia.

  • And, just to be clear, he is the individual in the white uniform with a hat on? Witness, did you hear the question I was just asking you? Is Mr N'jie the individual behind President Taylor in the white uniform?

  • Yes, he is the Gambian. He is not a Liberian.

  • And again I am just trying to get a clear answer so that we don't get confused because there are several people behind. He is the individual right behind President Taylor, is he not?

  • Yes, this is Musa N'jie.

  • Is this witness able to write these names, maybe draw an arrow against each one? Wouldn't that be better for a permanent record, Mr Rapp?

  • We could do that. Obviously these are pictures that we may use with other witnesses in the future and if it works better that way we can go ahead and do it.

    I think at this point, just because these pictures will be shown to others, we will just proceed as we are. Your Honours, if we can have this particular exhibit put aside, number C, and go to D:

  • Witness, a picture is now on the screen that is the number - the ERN number is P0000795 and can I ask you if you recognise any persons in this picture and just begin on the left and go to the right and describe the individuals?

  • On the left again is Musa N'jie, the senior aide-de-camp to the President Taylor. Then right after Musa N'jie is former President Taylor himself. Then next to President Taylor himself is Joe Montgomery with the neck tie, with the shirt open. The man who is standing with his mouth open with a chain round his neck is - the picture is not clear. Okay, he is Edwin Snow, the former managing director of the LPRC, Liberia produce - Liberian produce - petroleum - producing - processing something.

  • Before we leave Edwin Snow, what was his relationship to Taylor?

  • Edwin Snow was the son-in-law to the President, President Taylor.

  • And who was he married to?

  • Married to President Taylor's daughter.

  • Are we ready for the morning break, your Honour?

  • Yes, I was just checking on the time. I think we are now up to our time limit, Mr Rapp. Mr Witness, we are now going to take our usual mid-morning break of half an hour. We will resume again at 12 o'clock.

  • Please adjourn Court.

  • Your Honour, I wonder if someone could check out, there is a smell of something burning.

  • I am going to be checking that. Don't worry. We have had this in the past. It's building works, but I will check it again.

  • [Break taken at 11.30 a.m.]

  • [Upon resuming at 12.02 p.m.]

  • Mr Rapp, just before you resume I just want to assure counsel and others present in the Court that the security informs us that there are works going on in the exterior of the building and the smell we notice is being brought through the air ducts.

    Mr Rapp?

  • Thank you very much, Madam President. We were going through pictures at the break and there was a fifth picture I would like to have exhibited to the witness, the one that is letter E and that carries the ERN P000796:

  • Witness, do you recognise any persons in this photo?

  • Yes, by the right - by the left the photo is former President Taylor and by the right is Mr Musa Cisse and at the extreme right is Joe Montgomery and the lady with the red I will have to think about her name.

  • Well, witness, let's just be sure that we have correctly identified the people that you have there. You said the one on the left, the one on the left I take it with the blue suit, is Taylor. Now you said to the right the gentleman you said was Musa Cisse, what is he wearing?

  • Musa is with a white shirt and a grey suit.

  • How close is he to Taylor?

  • Very close. He is close on the right of --

  • Perhaps if the witness could do as he did before and point to them, it might make a better record. Thank you, Mr Witness.

  • Here is Mr Taylor and here is Mr Musa Cisse and here is Joe Montgomery and later I will identify this person.

  • Thank you, very much, witness. I think the record should reflect that the Joe Montgomery person is the person furthest on the right. Okay, if we can put that picture aside and go to a sixth picture. That is the one under letter F and that has the ERN number P000812. Do you recognise any persons in that photo?

  • Yes, here is the aide-de-camp again to Mr President Taylor, Momoh Gibba - the man in the military suit, Momoh Gibba - and here is former President Taylor. The next here is N'jie. He was another senior aide-de-camp in the coat suit. This man is from La Cote D'Ivoire. He used to be the Charge d'Affairs for the Cote D'Ivoire, the embassy of Cote D'Ivoire. I don't know his name. In the right here again is Joe Montgomery.

  • Okay, witness, I want to be clear because you said we were seeing again Momoh Gibba as the individual on the left and then you also identified Mr N'jie. Now, what were their positions?

  • Momoh Gibba is aide-de-camp and at that time N'jie was the chief, senior aide-de-camp to the President. There were a lot of aides to the President, but N'jie was the chief at that time and at that time Momoh Gibba was just an aide-de-camp to the President.

  • And what were their nationalities?

  • Gibba is a Liberian. N'jie is a Gambian.

  • I think the record clearly reflects the order of the individuals here, so we ask that that exhibit be taken from the witness. Now there was a seventh photo which wasn't in the packet and it was distributed to the parties in the last several days. It has the number P0005002. Thank you:

  • Witness, let me invite your attention to this photo. Who do you see in this photo?

  • I can see - I am seeing Mr Cyril Allen, the former chairman of the National Patriotic Party. I have seen former President Taylor and then of course I have seen Moses Blah.

  • Would you just tell me left to right who the individuals are?

  • On the left is Cyril Allen the former chairman of the National Patriotic Party, and in the centre is former President Charles Taylor, and on the right is Moses Blah former President of Liberia.

  • Witness, do you know when this picture was taken?

  • I can't remember. It was taken somewhere - the way I see it, it was out of Monrovia, like in Gbarnga, Ganta, some place out of Monrovia.

  • And from looking at the scene and the situation can you tell what position you were in at the time?

  • As this photo is, by then I was Vice-President of Liberia. I had the shirt when I was Vice-President.

  • One question: I see this wooden stick in Taylor's hand and I think that may have been shown earlier on in the fifth photo. What is that that he's holding, if you know?

  • It is a walking stick. That is the stick he used to walk with. It is like a walking stick for older people that use them to walk.

  • I see carving on it. Is there any significance to that?

  • Well, I wouldn't know and I wouldn't explain about the stick, because some leaders have this stick and some big military people, some presidents, they have their own reasons for holding a walking stick. And I have mine, but I don't think I have any reason for holding it except for support to my legs.

  • Thank you very much for identifying that photo. Your Honours, we now have seven photos here and if we can have those marked for identification perhaps - I don't know whether it's appropriate to have a single number and then have them as letters A through G, but I will leave that to your Honours.

  • The first photograph which the witness identified with the ERN number ending in 998 is marked for identification MFI-22 and I will give it an A and keep them in that sequence.

    The second photograph which ends in the ERN number 637 which the witness identified will become MFI-22B.

    The photograph ending in ERN number 791 which the witness identified will become 22C.

    The photograph ending in ERN number 795 which was identified will become MFI-22D.

    The photograph ending in ERN number 796 identified will become MFI-22E.

    The photograph ending in ERN number 812 will become MFI-22F.

    The photograph ending in an ERN number 5002 will become MFI-22G. Mr Rapp, please proceed.

  • Thank you very much, your Honour:

  • In your testimony you have indicated that you followed the news on BBC Network Africa and Focus on Africa. Do you remember ever hearing any reports about the invasion of Freetown?

  • Yes, I remember that Freetown was being attacked. Yes, I remember.

  • If we could ask for a document to be placed before the witness. It is in the binder. I believe it is the number 7 tab of the binder, BBC News article, "Freetown bears the scars":

  • Witness, would you look at this document and scan it and see if - then I want to put a question to you. Witness, is this consistent with the reports that you heard over the BBC?

  • Yes, I remember the reporter named here Mark Doyle. Yes, I can remember. I remember.

  • Your Honours, if we can put that one - well, let's ask if we can have that particular exhibit marked for identification.

  • This is a three page document with a heading "BBC/Africa/Freetown bears the scars" with a subheading "BBC News World Edition" and it is marked for identification MFI-23.

  • Witness, you indicated you visited Sierra Leone after you were President, after you became President of Liberia. Do you know if that visit was reported on in the press?

  • Yes, because when I was in Sierra Leone I had a press conference and even before I left Monrovia there was a press conference. So I am sure that it was in the press.

  • Let me ask the Registry to place before you a document that is not in the binder that has been circulated in the last several days. It is from the Sierra Leone News Archive dated 22 August. It's ERN number 000100522. It's a short article with a picture in it. We have a second copy of it here if there's a problem. Witness, would you take a look at this document and read it over briefly to yourself. Okay, witness?

  • Yes, I remember.

  • Is this news report consistent with your recollection of the reports made about your visit to Sierra Leone?

  • Yes, I remember, I remember.

  • Who is shown in the picture there?

  • On the left is former President Blah and by the right is former President Tejan Kabbah of Sierra Leone. We were trying to embrace each other.

  • So if we could have this exhibit, your Honour, marked for identification as well.

  • That is a one page document headed "Sierra Leone News Archives" with a date 22 August, a year unspecified, with a picture. It is marked for identification MFI-24.

  • Just an additional question about that document which you had a chance to look at: Is the report consistent, or is it accurate when it reflects what you said to President Kabbah?

  • Witness, you indicated in your testimony that you also followed Liberian newspapers and have you been shown any articles in Liberian newspapers that you were able to identify and remember?

  • No, until I see. I don't have any of those documents in my possession, but there were a lot of newspapers and news coming out of Sierra Leone.

  • Witness, let me ask the Registry to place before you a document from the - I will just make sure I have got the right document. It's at tab 5 of the binder. It is a news article from the Daily Times. If that can be placed. Witness, do you recall seeing this newspaper before?

  • Yes, yes, I have seen this paper before in Liberia way back in 1998.

  • Do you remember, when you saw it, any of the stories from that newspaper?

  • Yes, I have seen them.

  • Okay, well, then I would ask that this particular document be marked for identification.

  • That is a one page document with a heading "Daily Times" and a subheading "Volume 2 No. 65 Friday, July 24 1998". It is marked for identification MFI-25.

  • Mr Rapp, if you don't mind my interrupting, I am not sure which of the stories you want to draw the Court's attention to?

  • Well now it has been marked, witness, do you remember the stories in regard to guns and rice being traded for diamonds?

  • Yes, that is the story. That was in the newspaper, your Honours. It was in the newspaper.

  • Okay, thank you very much, witness.

  • Thank you, your Honour. Let me ask the Registry then to place before you a news article, or newspaper, at tab 11, the Monrovia Daily News from 3 March 1994:

  • Witness, do you recall seeing this newspaper before?

  • Yes, I remember this story in the newspaper.

  • And what story do you remember from this newspaper?

  • The one that is saying "ULIMO contemplates replacing Ziah", I saw the headlines, and the other headlines "In Rivercess County NPFL burns 200 alive".

  • Well do you know anything about this report, or do you have any information about what is being reported on in this article that is headlined "NPFL burns 200 alive"?

  • Yes, I read the story in the newspaper. I read the newspaper.

  • And do you remember anything about the event that is reported in the newspaper?

  • Well, what I remember is that it was the time when ULIMO was deploying all over Liberia and this news came from UNMIL and they were able to move to that area to investigate the matter, but I don't know how it was concluded. It was a different place at that time.

  • Okay, thank you. I would then ask that this document be marked for identification as well, your Honours.

  • This is a one page document headed "Monrovia Daily News" with a subheading "Volume 3 No. 52 Thursday, March 3", and I think it is "1994". The date is not entirely clear. It is marked for identification MFI-26.

  • Your Honour, can I just interrupt to seek some clarification here. Behind my divider 11 there are in fact two pages. I don't know whether both are to be exhibited, or just the one?

  • I see, you are right. I had not seen the second page, Mr Griffiths, but you are quite right there is a second page and it appears to be a continuation and am I to take it they are together, Mr Rapp?

  • That is correct, your Honours. As I think you note, they are both 3 March 1994 and there is a note at the bottom of the article, for instance the NPFL and the 200, it says "Continued page" and it looks like "page 6" and this is page 6 and then the story continues about the same subject matter.

  • I will not amend the MFI number, but I will amend it to note that it is a two page document. Thank you for that, Mr Griffiths.

  • Not at all, your Honour.

  • Then finally the final article I wanted to show you, or have the Registry place before you, is an article from - let's see, it is in the binder at tab 12 and it is from a newspaper The Inquirer. If you would look at that briefly, Mr Witness, have you seen this newspaper before? This issue?

  • Yes, I remember.

  • Now as far as the articles that are in the newspaper, are there any that you recall specifically that are there from your own personal experience?

  • Yes, it has to do with this ambush. There was an ambush in Rivercess in which a businessman died. I will recall his name later. He was killed, and one of our commanders escaping unharmed and he went into the bush for about a week and he was later discovered and he was brought to safety. It started in Grand Gedeh, when one evening I was in Grand Gedeh for inspection, and this man - this businessman - had decided to come to Buchanan by using the Sinoe route coming to Rivercess. I knew it was dark and they wanted me to go and escort them as inspector general, but I advised earlier that the road was not good and during war if you were driving a car and the headlights of the car will be suspected and there will be an ambush. I warned them, but they said, no, the war was not close to them.

    But as they went and they were attacked from Sinoe and that was the direction they wanted us to go at night, but then I told them that my car had a problem and that my jeep was not good and I needed to have it repaired before I will take the way to escort them at night. Then I took off, I came up to Tapita to the garage and it was early that morning that our radio - our communication in the car said - we heard that there was an ambush and this businessman was killed, another man jumped into the bush and the soldiers that we were carrying on that side they were all killed in an ambush. It was a terrible ambush. I remember that, but the names of those who got killed will come to my mind later. It was between Rivercess and Grand Bassa in the palm plantation - oil palm plantation. That was where the ambush took place.

  • And glancing your eyes over this article, does this appear to be the same event that is being reported on in the article?

  • Yes. As I am reading, yes. It has been quite a long time. That was why it took me long to see.

  • At the time that this event occurred, what was your position?

  • At this time I was inspector general. It was in 1994, 1994/1995 if I am not mistaken. I was still inspector general.

  • Your Honour, we would ask that this article in two pages be marked for identification.

  • This is a two page document with the words "The Inquirer" at the left side, Volume 4 No. 6, Monday January 24 1994. The date is somewhat obscured, but I think that is correct. It is marked for identification MFI-26. Oh, sorry, I have been corrected by Justice Lussick, 27.

  • Now, witness, when you were Vice-President what were your duties as Vice-President?

  • Well, as Vice-President of Liberia I was also the President of the Liberian Senate and I was like a deputy principal to the President and he had all rights to order me to do anything that lied [sic] within his powers. I was serving between both the executive and the legislature, according to our laws as Vice-President.

  • As Vice-President, were you familiar with the constitution of the Republic of Liberia?

  • I must have been familiar with it. I must be familiar with the laws of the country and that was why I was President of the Senate.

  • We would ask then that the item at tab 18 be placed before the witness, a document of 21 pages - 24 pages, excuse me:

  • Witness, would you glance at this document. I think you have seen the first page on the screen. Are you familiar with this document?

  • Yes, yes.

  • The Constitution of the Republic of Liberia.

  • And was it the constitution that was in effect when you were Vice-President and President?

  • This is like a preamble. You mean what was the constitution?

  • No, I am just asking about this document. I understand that on the screen you have page 1 in front of you, but I believe the Court Registry has given you a document that is 24 pages in length and if you just glance through those pages, if you could tell me what this document is?

  • It is the law of Liberia.

  • What law is it specifically?

  • This is the law, the structure of the State and the laws that govern the State, the country of Liberia, because there are a lot of articles here and I could not go through them all and it describes what now the division of powers. We have the legislature, the executive, the judiciary. So these are various laws that guide the country.

  • Going to the last page, if you would, witness, there I see, "Completed the 19th day of August AD 1983." Do you know if these laws, this basic law or constitution was still in effect as of the time that you were President of Liberia?

  • I didn't see this, but this is the law and the guidelines you see in all of these laws are drawn from the constitution of Liberia and most of the things that are in here are in our constitution now as I speak, but a lot of changes went on, but they weren't much.

  • Your Honour, we would then ask that this particular document in 24 pages be marked for identification.

  • This is a 24 page document headed "Constitution of the Republic of Liberia." There then is a preamble setting out the 13 chapters and it continues. It is marked for identification MFI-28.

  • Finally with exhibits we would ask the Registry to place before you a document which begins with the ERN 00031455 "Liberian Codes Revised" and though it doesn't - it is a series of pages, not necessarily all the pages, but the document itself that is here has 16 separate pages to it.

  • Sorry, it is indeed in a tab. That is tab 10. My apologies:

  • Now, witness, if I can ask you if you can go back in the document that's in front of you to six pages from the back. Perhaps the Registry can assist. If they would show the witness the pages beginning with ERN 31465. Witness, are you familiar with the Special Security Service of Liberia?

  • I am familiar with the law that established the Special Security Service of Liberia.

  • Witness, if you would look at these pages and the pages that follow, does this appear to be the law that you are familiar with?

  • Yes, under our laws the appointment and duties of the director are spelt out here, they are correct. These are the duties.

  • Your Honour, with the Court's permission I would like to have this document marked for identification, noting that the pages that precede the sections on the Special Security Service are content pages showing outlines of the material in the book, so that these pages are put in proper context in the book.

  • If my arithmetic is correct, Mr Rapp, these are 17 pages.

  • It would appear so though for some reason the page that is 31464 isn't in the group. It steps from the beginning of the chapter on the general organisation of the executive office to a subchapter C, so I think it is 17 minus one.

  • 16 then. This is a 16 page document entitled "Liberian Codes Revised, Volume III" of which the witness's attention has been drawn to the page 349 and he particularly identified page 350. It is marked for identification MFI-29.

  • Witness, was this law in effect when you were President?

  • And to your knowledge was it in effect when Charles Taylor was President?

  • Witness, I just have one final question for you on my direct examination and we earlier talked about the subpoena, but you said you had before that spoken to investigators. Why did you decide to provide information to the Special Court for Sierra Leone?

  • Because I decided to comply with the international court and I took this decision on my own that I must comply with the Court.

  • Thank you very much.

  • Yes, I want to add and also if it had to do with the National Patriotic Front and I came a long way from the start to finish being adjutant, being inspector general, being inspector reacquisitions and ambassador of Liberia to Libya and Tunisia and been Vice-President and President, I must have had knowledge of things that happened in the country up to these times. So I saw it necessary to do this.

  • Thank you very much, witness. That will conclude my direct examination, your Honours.

  • Thank you, Mr Rapp. Mr Griffiths, do you carriage of --

  • Before I begin I have an application to make. During the short adjournment this morning I was provided with a 18 page autopsy report into the death of Sam Bockarie. It's a document which hitherto had not been served on the Defence and it is of some significance, given that your Honours might well conclude that at one level the high point of this witness's evidence is the evidence he gives as to the death of Sam Bockarie.

    As a consequence, I would like an opportunity, having not had one, to peruse this document in some detail and noting the hour I wonder if your Honours would agree to adjourn at this point so that I can commence my cross-examination of this witness on Monday morning.

  • Mr Rapp, you have heard the application by Defence counsel.

  • I am informed by the Case Manager of our team that this document was first disclosed to the Defence on 12 February '07. It was brought to their further attention today because of Rule 68, the possibility of inconsistencies between that report and the witness's testimony, but I have no objection to this adjournment if the Defence requires time to prepare for cross-examination.

  • Allow me to consult.

  • [Trial Chamber conferred]

    We note there is no objection and we consider this a reasonable application and we will grant the application and the Court will adjourn early. I will explain to the witness.

  • I am most grateful, your Honour.

  • Mr Witness, on Friday afternoons we normally do not sit in court, we do other work, written work and have meetings, and we are going to adjourn a little earlier than usual today because counsel for the Defence must look at some papers. Counsel was not counsel for the Defence at the relevant time they were served. We are therefore going to adjourn now and we will be resuming court at 9.30 on Monday morning.

  • Your Honour.

  • I will again remind you, as I have done in the past, of your obligation not to discuss your evidence with any other person because you are under oath.

  • Please adjourn court until 9.30 on Monday.

  • [Whereupon the hearing adjourned at 12.50 p.m. to be reconvened on Monday, 19 May 2008 at 9.30 a.m.]